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41 Cards in this Set

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Culture
-a group's patterned way of thinking and giving meaning to what happens in the physical and social environment.
-system of understanding characteristic of an individual's society
What does culture influence?
The way members of a group think, act towards each other and how they use the material world.
What are nonmaterial components of culture?
-Values
-Beliefs
-Norms
What are material components of culture?
-Objects
What are Cultural Universals?
-universal human needs
-ways of organizing to provide for human needs
What are some attributes of culture?
familial attributes, linguistic, religious and spiritual attributes, etc.
What is the culture concept first defined by Edward Tylor?
-culture is a the complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, law, morals, custom and other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society.
How does Ralph Linton define culture?
the sum total of ideas, conditioned emotional responses and patterns of habitual behavior which the members of a society have acquired through instruction or imitation and which they share to a greater or lesser degree.
What is the individual oriented concept of culture?
society's culture is a pool of constructs (rules, beliefs, values, etc.) by which the society's members conceptually order the objects and events of their lives
-private system of ideas of individuals
what is cultural heritage?
that which has been made available by predecessors
what is cultural inheritance?
the portion of the group's heritage that the individual has effectively received or internalized from the past.
What is propriocept, mazeway and idioverse?
They all mean: that each individual assembles their own version of the larger culture
In what way is culture distributive?
its elements are widely distributed among the individual members of a society
cultural homgeneity
all members of a culture share all the culture's attributes
(Schwartz)Distributive model of culture
implies that each individual's portion of the culture differs in some way from any other
what does Schwartz believe about cultural systems?
it consists of all the constructs available to a society's members.
-The members are the source of culture
acculturation
process by which the members of a society are taught the elements of the society's culture
Deep layer of culture
least apparent, cultural values influencing people's perceptions and actions
Surface/Top layer ( most easily seen part) of culture
customs, etc.
Participant structured demand
demands of instruction that are imposed by the organization of the learning environment itself.
Scaffolding
allow cultural elements that are relevant to the children to enter the classroom freely
3 ingredients of effective teaching in a context of student cultural diversity
-Personal commitment
-Knowledge of what makes a difference
-Educational leadership
What is Sonia Nieto's definition of culture?
THE EVER CHANGING VALUES, traditions, social and political relationships and worldview CREATED, SHARED, and TRANSFORMED BY A GROUP OF PEOPLE BOUND TOGETHER BY A COMBINATION OF FACTORS that can include a common history, geographic location, language, social class and religion.
According to Sonia Nieto what does culture include?
the WHAT- contents or products of it
the HOW- process, how it is created and changed
the WHO- who creates and changes it
Why can't culture be restricted to ethnicity?
-because there are also cultures based on socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, etc.
-people often belong to multiple cultures at the same time
What is cultural Capital?
-acquired taste, values,languages, and dialects or the educational qualifications that mark a person as belonging to a privileged social and cultural class.
-does not have to be taught; learned unconsciously
What is social capital?
the social obligations and networks that are convertible into economic capital
What is the culture of survival?
the attitudes, values, traditions and behaviors that are developed in response to political, economic, or social forces some of which may be interpreted as a threat to the survival of the culture in some way.
What is the culture of liberation?
the values, attitudes, traditions and behaviors that embody liberatory aspects of culture
-"human rights"
How does a capitalistic society (U.S.) distribute goods?
according to capacity to pay
How does a socialistic society (Cuba, China) distribute goods?
according to his or her need
What is silent barter?
avoid face to face interaction with trading partners
What are some cultural universals?
-solutions to problems that face all societies
-economic system
-systems of marriage and family
-social control system
-system of supernatural beliefs
-systems of communications
Values
standards by which members of a society define something good or bad, desireable or undesireable, beautiful or ugly, etc...
What are some things that affect value?
time, setting, place, and context
What are some characteristics of Values?
judgement, perception, decision making process, they are shared, important, passed on through generations, influence behavior
What seperates values and beliefs?
beliefs- true/false
value- good/bad
beliefs
cultural conventions about assumptions (true/false), about the nature of the universe and human being's place in it
norms
unwritten rules through which people know they would behave in a particular cultural setting
what is the difference between rule/laws and norms?
norms and the consequences of breaking them are unwritten
Rules/Laws
written instruction that people are required to follow, if they do not, there are written consequences