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73 Cards in this Set

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what are the 5 major functions of muscles?
produce body movements, stabilize body positions, regulate organ volume, flow of substances within the body, production of heat
what are the 3 major muscles categories? Which 2 are striated? Which is voluntary?
smooth, skeletal, cardiac; cardiac and skeletal; skeletal
a typical skeletal muscle is contained within a dense tissue sheath which corresponds, in part, to deep fascia. What is the name of this tissue?
what is another name for a muscle strand? With what is each layer of muscle covered?
fasicle; perimysium
what is the basic unit of muscle, of which fasicles are composed? With what are these units covered?
muscle fibers; endomysium
what is the name for the feature of muscle which separates the muscle fiber from the endomysium? This is part of which larger membrane?
external lamina; sarcolemma
by which anatomical feature are muscles attached to bone? Of what is this feature composed?
tendons; dense, regular connective tissue
what is the purpose of tendons?
provide stability for the muscle and transmit the force of movement from muscle to bone
skeletal muscle fibers arise from the fusion of multiple cells during development, resulting in mutinucleate muscle fibers. What is the name for these precursor cells?
where in the muscle fiber are nuclei located? Immediately beneath which feature?
on the periphery of fiber; sarcolemma
what is the name for the extended contractile unit in muscle fibers? For the fundamental unit of contraction?
myofibril; sacromere
what are the two main constituents of sacromeres? Which form the thin lines? Thick lines?
actin and myosin II; actin; myosin II
what is the composition of the H line? The I line?
myosin; actin
a sarcomere is defined as the unit between which two lines of demarcation?
Z lines
the 'midline' of a sacromere is called what?
M line
what is the name for the part of the sarcomere which spans the thick filament?
A line
by which end (+ or -) are actin molecules anchored on Z lines? With which scaffolding protein are they associated?
(+) end; nebulin
which protein holds myosin II in place and also acts as a molecular spring to prevent overstretching of the sarcomere?
to which regulatory proteins are actin filaments bound?
troponin-tropomyosin complex
which cytoskeletal elements help to maintain the proper alignment of myofibrils within the muscle fiber?
intermediate filaments
which two proteins are involved in the membane cytoskeleton which serves to stabilize the sarcolemma? Defects in which of these elements leads to muscular dystrophy?
actin and dystrophin; dystrophin
which proteins help to establish the muscle-tendon connection at the myotendinous junction? Between which two elements is this connection made?
integrins; between actin filaments of terminal sarcomere and extracellular matrix of tendon
what is the name for the unit composed of a single axon together with all the muscle fibers it innervates?
motor unit
what is the name for the location on the muscle where the neuromuscular junction synapses?
motor end plate
release of which NT into the synapse of neuromuscular junction triggers depolarization in the sarcolemma?
what is the name of the structure which carries the depolarization from the sarcolemma to the individual myofibrils?
with which feature of the myofibrils do T-tubules make contact to further spread depolarization to each sarcomere in skeletal muscle? What is the name for these contacs?
sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR); triads
communication between t-tubules and SR results in the release of what from the SR to trigger an muscle contraction?
which protein, known as an E-F hand proteins, binds Ca++ to expose the actin filaments for binding to to the myosin heads?
troponin C
for which part of the muscle contraction is ATP required?
for the release of the myosin heads from the actin filaments
how is cardiac muscle different from skeletal muscle in terms of number and location of nuclei?
cardiac muscle cells are uninucleate and the nucleus is located in the center of the cell, unlike the skeletal muscle cells which are mutinucleate and have their nuclei on periphery of cell.
which, cardiac or skeletal muscle fibers, often branch?
cardiac muscle fibers
what is the name for the structure allowing for elaborate intercellular junctional complexes in cardiac muscle cells? These structures are composed of which 3 structures?
intercalated discs; macular adherens (desmosomes), fasica adherens, and gap junctions
what is the name for the SR-t tubule junction in cardiac muscle cells? Is the SR more or less elaborate in these cells than in skeletal muscle cells?
diads; less
which aspect of the intercalated discs is important for synchonization of action potentials in adjacent muscle cells?
gap junctions
are smooth muscle cells multi- or uninucleate?
which feature connects smooth muscle cell to coordinate contraction?
gap junctions
the structural framework of smooth muscle cells is provided by which cytoskeletal element?
intermediate filaments
what is the name for the units which anchor actin thin filaments in smooth muscle cells?
dense plaques
in what kind of arrangment do myosin and actin interact in smooth muscle cells?
in a 3D manner
macula adherens is another word for which attachment junctions in cardiac muscle cells?
do smooth muscles respond primarily to hormonal or nervous stimuli?
of cardiac, smooth, and skeletal muscle, which 2 use the troponin-tropomyosin complex for contraction?
cardiac and skeletal
in smooth muscles, myosin is activated via which protein, as opposed to the troponin-tropomyosin complex?
myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
which protein deactivates myosin filaments in smooth muscle cells?
what is one pathway via which MLCK can be activated in smooth muscle cells?
organizations of smooth muscle cells that need to be under tight control are known as what? Will these organizations be more or less heavily innervated than other smooth muscle cells? Where might one find this?
multiunit ; more; pupils
what is the term used for smooth muscle which is not multiunit? What is an example of where one might find this?
visceral or unitary type; gut or uterus
which of the 3 muscle types exhibits mitosis?
what are the 5 properties of muscle tissue?
excitability, conductivity, contractility, extensibility, elasticity
skeletal muscle cells experience limited regeneration via which support cells?
satellite cells
which band of skeletal muscle is also known as the "light" band? The "dark" band?
I is light, A is dark
the external lamina of skeletal muscle cells is another term for which epithelial feature?
basement membrane
what are the 2 components of the sarcolemma?
external lamina and plasma membrane
what is the name for the cytoplasm in a muscle cell?
what are the larger names for actin and myosin filaments?
which 3 types of intermediate filaments are present between myofibrils for support?
desmin, vimentin, synemin
what are the functions of troponin T and troponin I?
T binds tropomyosin and I inhibits binding of myosin to actin
which protein is the main component of the M line in sarcomeres?
what is the difference in function between small and large motor units?
small motor units are in charge of fine motor control, large units manage gross muscle control
the triads occur at the junction of which bands in striated muscle cells?
A and I
which kind of skeletal muscle is important in maintaining posture?
which kind of skeletal muscle is white and contains little myoglobin and blood vessels?
fast-twitch B
which fast-twitch muscles are used for running and walking? For lifting weights?
fast twitch A; fast-twitch B
which feature is crucial in sensing muscle stretch?
muscle spindle
at which location in cardiac cells is diad found?
Z line
is there more SR in skeletal or cardiac muscle?
cucumber nuclei are characteristic of which type of muscle?
what structures replace t-tubules in smooth muscle?
which type of collagen is found between smooth muscle cells?
Type III (reticular fibers)
corkscrew nuclei result from which activity in smooth muscles?
contraction of cell
what is the name for the structure on the axons which innervate smooth muscle?
what is the role of alpha actinin?
to anchor actin at the Z lines