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98 Cards in this Set

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what are the names for the two layers of skin?
dermis and epidermis
which three types of glands are commonly found in the skin?
sweat glands, mammary glands, sebaceous glands
what are 5 functions of the skin?
protection, regulation of body temperature, photochemical production of vitamin D, excretion of wastes via sweat glands, sensation
what is the composition of epidermis? From which germ layer is the epidermis derived?
epithelium; ectoderm
what is the composition of the dermis? From which germ layer is the dermis derived?
connective tissue; mesoderm
which type of epithelium is the epidermis?
keratinized stratified squamous epithelium
what is another name for the epithelial cells which compose the epidermis?
other than the keratinocytes which comprise the epithelium, which other non-epithelial cells are present in the epidermis?
melanocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkel's cells
how many layers of keratinocytes are present in epidermis?
4 (5 in thick skin)
what is the name of the deepest layer of epidermis? Of how many cell layers is it composed?
stratum basale; 1
what is the shape of the epithelium which composes the stratum basale?
cuboidal or low columnar
are the cells in the stratum basale mitotically active or inactive, for the most part?
by which adhesive feature are cells of the stratum basale attached to adjacent cells? To the basement membrane?
desmosomes; hemidesmosomes
is the cytoplasm of cells of stratum basale eosinophilic or basophilic? Why?
basophilic; because there are many ribosomes making keratin
into which cytoskeletal element is keratin organized in the keratinocytes?
intermediate filaments (called keratin fibers, tonofilaments, cytokeratins)
what are the name for the pigment granules found in the cells of the stratum basale?
by which type of cells are melanosomes synthesized? In which layer of epithelium are these cells found?
melanocytes; stratum basale
which of the 5 layers of epidermis is most often the thickest? What is the shape of the cells in this layer?
stratum spinosum; cuboidal or flattened cuboidal
what is a name given to cells of the stratum spinosum due to their abundance of intercellular desmosomes?
prickle cells
which is the last of the 5 layers of epidermis that has nucleated cells?
stratum granulosum
what is the morphology of the cells in the stratum granulosum
flattened nucleated cells
with which type of basophilic granules are cells of the stratum granulosum filled?
keratohyalin granules
what is the purpose of the lamellar bodies? In which layer of the epidermis are they normally found?
form a barrier for water retention (water-proofing); stratum granulosum
what is the name for the layer of epidermis superficial to the stratum granulosum which is composed of dead cells filled with keratin?
stratum corneum
which cells of the stratum corneum, the deepest or most superficial, are coated with lipids from the lamellar bodies?
which cells of the stratum corneum, the deepest of most superficial, are attached to adjacent cells by desmosomes and resist being sloughed off?
in which two locations does thick skin predominate?
palms of hands and soles of feet
in thick skin, which layer, which is thin in thin skin, is particularly thick?
stratum corneum
what is the name for the 5th layer of epidermis which is often found between stratum granulosum and stratum corneum in thick-skinned areas?
stratum lucidum
aside from amount of keratin, which surface specialization distinguishes thick from thin skin?
thin skin is covered with hair; thick skin is not.
from which germ cells are melanocytes derived?
neural crest cells
melanocytes have extensive processes that contact as many as _____ neighboring ________________ in both the basal and spinous layers.
30; keratinocytes
which pigment molecule comprises melanosomes?
why do melanosomes congregate above the nucleus in keratinocytes?
because their job is to protect DNA from UV damage.
true or false. Variations in skin color are due to variations in the number of melanocytes in different individuals.
false; it is the number of melanosomes produced by the melanocytes that determines skin color, not the number of melanocytes.
which non-epithelial cells which reside in the epidermis are pale-staining and have numerous dendritic processes?
Langerhans cells
in which layer of the epidermis are Langerhans cells typically found?
stratum spinosum
which non-epithelial cells of the epidermis are both antigen-presenting cells and are involved in contact dermatitis?
Langerhans cells
which non-epithelial cells of the epidermis are rounded cells found in the basal layer that are modified keratinocytes?
Merkel's cells
of which mechanosensory receptor that detects touch and pressure are Merkel's cells part?
Merkel's disks
which feature in Merkel's cells is thought to modulate the nerve terminal?
which layer of the skin is responsible for the tone?
what are the names of the two layers which comprise the dermis?
papillary layer and reticular layer
which layer of the dermis is responsible for strengthening the epidermal-dermal junction?
papillary layer
the papillary layer of the dermis is responsible for which gross feature of the human skin?
which layer of the dermis contains many fibroblasts, mast cells, and macrophages?
papillary layer
of which type of connective tissue is papillary layer composed? Reticular layer?
loose CT; dense irregular CT
what determines the elasticity of the dermis?
the quality of the fibers in the reticular layer
what is another name for the 'superficial fascia' found in gross anatomy?
of what is the hypodermis composed?
loos CT with variable amounts of fat, blood vessels, and nerves
which layer of the integument is responsible for the skin's ability to slide?
which layer of the of the integument provides insulation and serves as a shock absorber?
of which type of cells are hair follicles composed?
what is the name for the bottom of the tube which anchors a hair follicle?
what is the name for the part of the hair follicle that contains the capillaries that nourish the follicle?
dermal papilla
what is the name for the cells in a hair follicle which surround the dermal papilla and which are responsible for the formation of hair?
hair matrix
which cells and associated granules are responsible for hair color? In which region of the hair follicle are these found?
melanocytes and melanosomes; hair matrix
what are the two general parts of a hair follicle, determined by location with relation to the skin?
root and shaft
from the deepest to most superficial layer, what are the names of the 3 layer of skin which make up the hair follicle? Which of these 3 layers is heavily keratinized and overlap like shingles on a roof?
medulla, cortex, cuticle; cuticle
with which type of muscle are hair follicles often associated? Is this muscle striated or smooth?
arrector pili; smooth
what is the name for the collective unit composed of sebaceous glands and arrector pili muscles in hair follicles?
pilosebaceous unit
what two features compose the two anchors of the arrector pili muscle in the hair follicles? Contracting the arrector pili has what effect on hair?
hair follicle and dermis; stand up vertically (goosebumps)
what is the name of the oily secretion by the sebaceous glands?
which method of secretion is used by sebaceous glands?
in which two layers of the skin are sebaceous glands most commonly found? In which three areas of the body are they most commonly found?
dermis and hypodermis; scalp, face, upper chest
which type of glands are sebaceous glands?
simple branched acinar glands
what clinical manifestation results upon buildup of sebum in the ducts of sebaceous glands?
overactivity of sebaceous glands produces which condition? Give two examples of this condition (one in children, one in adults)?
seborrhea; cradle cap and dandruff
what are the names of the two types of sweat glands found in the skin?
eccrine and apocrine
eccrine sweat glands are of which gland variety? They are most commonly found in which two layers of skin?
simple coiled tubular glands; dermis or hypodermis
what is the primary function of eccrine glands? Which products are excreted by these glands?
evaporative cooling; salts, lactate, urea
the secretory portion of eccrine glands is composed of which type of epithelium? The duct?
simple cuboidal; stratified cuboidal epithelium
which two types of cells are found in the secretory layer of the eccrine sweat glands? Which of these are pyramidal cells full of secretory granules containing glycoproteins? Which cells produce water and electrolytes?
dark cells and clear cells; dark cells; clear cells
which method of secretion is used by eccrine sweat glands?
which type of cells are found among the secretory cells and help expel the secretions?
myoepithelial cells
accrine sweat glands are which type of glands? With which bodily regions are they associated?
simple coiled tubular glands; axillary and anogenital regions
which skin feature are apocrine sweat glands often associated?
hair follicles
is the lumen of apocrine gland wider or thinner than eccrine sweat glands?
what creates characteristic scent of body odor?
when sweat from apocrine glands gets processed by batereia
the secretions from apocrine glands contain which chemicals important in sexual relationships?
how do all glands originally develop?
via invagination of skin during early development
what is the classification of mammary glands?
compound tubuloacinar
what is the pre-puberty difference in mammary glands between males and females?
what occurs upon puberty in mammary glands of females?
elongation and branching of ducts and establishment of lobular architecture of mature breast
with pregnancy, what changes take place in the breast of a woman?
mammary glandular tissue proliferates, replacing much of the fat and CT.
of which type of cells are secretory aveoli in pregnant women composed?
simpe cuboidal or columnar epithelium and myoepithelial cells
what is the name for the original pre-milk protein-rich, antibody-rich secretion of breasts in a pregnant woman?
milk production is triggered by the release of which hormone?
which methods of secretion are used by active mammary glands? For which components of milk is each method responsible?
merocrine is responsible for protein and antibody component; apocrine is responsible for lipid component
which type of secretion is performed by apocrine sweat glands?
secretions from mammary glands drain into ____________ which is lined with ______________ and then into _______________ which open individually at the nipple.
lactiferous ducts; simple cuboidal epithelium; lactiferous sinuses
which 3 sensory receptors are encapsulated? Which 2 are unencapsulated?
Meissner's corpuscles, Pacinian corpuscles, Ruffini's Corpuscles; Merkel's Disks, Free nerve endings
where are Meissner's corpuscles located in skin? What is their function?
within dermal papillae in hairless skin; detection of fine touch and pressure
where are Pacininan corpuscles located in skin? What is their function?
within deep dermis and hypodermis; detection of deep pressure and vibration
where are Merkel's Disks located in skin? What is their function?
Epidermal-dermal junction; detection of fine touch and pressure
where are Ruffini's Corpuscles located in skin? What is their function?
dermis; detection of stress
where are free nerve endings located in skin? What is their function?
epidermis or associated with hair follicle; detection of pain, temperature, hair movement
what is another term to mean hairless, in thick skin?
glabrous skin