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67 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
where are pluripotent stem cells found predominantly?
bone marrow
are stem cells self-renewing or not?
which are the two lines of differentiation that multipotential cells can take?
lymphoid and myeloid
do progenitor cells have more of fewer differentiation options than pluripotent stem cells?
which cells do progenitor cells give rise to?
blast cells
for what does CFU stand? To what does this refer?
colony forming units; early cells (blasts, progenitors, pluripotent stem cells)
by which 2 types of molecules is hematopoiesis regulated?
cytokines and growth factors
what is the role of erythropoietin in the body? Where is it produced?
stimulates RBC development; kidney and other places
what is the role of G-CSF in the body?
stimulates granulocyte and macrophage development
where is the original site of hematopoiesis in the foetus?
yolk sac
following the yolk sac, where does hematpoiesis take place in the foetus?
liver then spleen
what is another name for hematopoiesis in the bone marrow? What happens when there is a hematopoietic crisis?
medullary hematopoiesis; extramedullary hematopoiesis may be seen in liver or spleen (like in foetus)
what does a bone marrow biopsy allow one to study under a microscope?
architecture and cellularity
what does a bone marrow smear allow one to study under a microscope?
what is the most common location of marrow smear or biopsy tapping?
iliac crest
what is the cellularity of the bone marrow?
percentage of marrow occupied by hematopoietic cells
does the cellularity of bone marrow in a human increase or decrease with increasing age?
what is the type of marrow that predominates in children? In adults?
red marrow; yellow marrow
what are the 3 components of the hematopoietic compartment of the marrow?
developing blood cells, stromal cells, reticular-type connective tissue
what are the names for the two compartments of marrow?
hematopoietic and vascular
in marrow, developing red cells are found in what formation? In these formations, they normally surround which type of cell?
erythroid islands; macrophage
are erythroid islands normally located near or far from marrow sinusoids? Why?
near; the cells are not motile and want to enter blood stream
are developing leukocytes located near to or far from marrow sinusoids? Why?
far; because they are motile cells
are megakaryocytes found near to or far from the marrow sinusoids?
near to
what is the product of broken off megakaryocyte cytoplasm?
what is the name for the development of red blood cells?
which 4 events characterize the differentiation from proerythroblast to mature erythrocyte?
decrease in size of cell, gradual condensation of nucleus, extrusion of nucleus, increase in cytoplasmic eosinphilia
whar are the 6 cells in the erythrocyte pathway?
proerythroblast, basophilic erythroblast, polychromatophilic erythroblast, orthochromatophilic erythroblast, reticulocytes, and erythrocytes
what is the term used to refer to the development of granulocytes? How long does this take?
granulopoiesis; 14 days
what characterizes the progression from myeloblast to promyelocyte?
appearance of primary, azurophilic granules
what characterizes the progression from promyelocyte to myelocyte?
appearance of secondary, specific granules
what is the progression of granulopoiesis in the body?
myeloblast, promyelocyte, myelocyte, metamyelocyte, band cell, segmented granulocyte
of what is the appearance of immature granulocytes in the blood stream indicative? What is this called?
disease state; shift to the left
does the megakaryocyte have a mono-, bi-, or multi-lobed nucleus?
how do megakaryocytes grow so large?
they undergo DNA replication but never split
what is the name for the divisions in the megakaryocyte which permit the fragmentation of platelets from the body directly into the marrow sinusoids?
demarcation membranes
in healthy marrow, are earlier stages or differentiated forms more prevalent?
in healthy marrow, what is the ratio of myeloid elements to erythroid elements? What is the name for this ratio?
3:1; M-E ratio
changes in the M-E ratio can be indicative of what?
myeloid disease
all blood cells are derived from how many pluripotent stem cells?
what are the two types of stem cells?
pluripotent and multipotent
what is the name for the cells which become the myeloid and lymphoid lineages?
multipotent stem cells
are blast cells mitotically active? Are they self-renewing?
yes; no
do mature cells have mitotic activity?
what is the role of IL-3 in the differentiation of stem cells?
stimulates production of all myeloid cells
what is the role of thrombopoietin in the differentiation of stem cells?
stimulates production of platelets
what are the 3 sites of the majority of hematopoiesis?
ribs, pelvis, vertebrae
in which, a bone marrow biopsy or a smear, can you see trabecular bone?
does the amount of fat in marrow increase or decrease with increasing age?
can white marrow switch back to red marrow?
yes, in times of need
what is the problem in aplastic anemia?
the body does not make enough erythrocytes
from which arteries does the marrow blood supply come?
nutrient and periosteal
why are adventitial cells found near the marrow sinusoids?
because they help to decide which molecules enter the sinusoids
how do RBCs and megakaryocytes enter marrow sinusoids?
they fuse their PM with that of the endothelium and create a transient pore through which they crawl
which cells in the marrow are the major storage sites of heme and iron? Why?
macrophages; they digest dead RBCs and recycle the heme and iron to give to erythrocyes - erythroblastic island
how long does it take an RBC to develop?
7 days
what happens to color of cytoplasm as erythrocyte develops?
it turns from blue to pinkish-red
In Wright's stain, do nucleoli stain dark or light?
do basophilic erythroblasts have nucleoli? Are they smaller or larger than proerythroblasts?
no; smaller
what is the term used to describe the nucleus of the polychomatophilic erythroblast?
in which erythrocytes precursor is the nucleus extruded?
orthochromatophilic erythroblast
what is the biggest difference between a myeloblast and a promyelocyte?
presence of azurophilic granules in promyelocyte
between which two granulocyte precursors is the nucleolus lost?
promyelocyte and neutrophilic myelocyte
in which neutrophil precursor is the nucleus dented?
neutrophilic metamyelocyte
what is the name of the neutrophil precursor that has a horseshoe nucleus?
band cell
what characterizes the nucleus of the neutrophil?
segmented nucleus (multiple lobes)
how many lobes does the nucleus of a megakaryoblast have?