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59 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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what are the two major components of connective tissue
cells and extracellular matrix
what are the three components of the extracellular matrix?
fibers, structural glycoproteins, amorphous ground substance
what are the two major classifications for cells in the connective tissue?
free and fixed
which cell in the connective tissue is largely responsible for the production and maintenance of the extracellular matrix?
fibroblast
of which system is the macrophage representative?
mononuclear phagocyte system
what is the name for the cell which releases substances in response to allergies?
mast cell
what are two substances released by mast cells in response to allergy or anaphylaxis?
histamine and heparin
which antibody triggers the mast cell response to allergens?
IgE
neutrophils play a role in what important immune function?
phagocytosis
what are 3 areas of connective tissue where one might find eosinophils and lymphocytes?
skin, respiratory tract, gut epithelia
which fibrous element is predominant in the extracellular matrix?
collagen
true or false. Collagen, like all other types of extracellular matrix, is produced and maintained by the fibroblasts.
true.
None
what is the highest level of collagen that is produced INSIDE the cell?
procollagen
None
tropocollagen molecules are formed of how many collagen helices?
3 helices
what are the 2 highest levels of organization for collagen molecules? Where are they assembled?
fibrils and fibers; assembled in extracellular space
which amino acids are the most prominent in collagen?
glycine and proline
which 2 amino acids are hydroxylated in the formation of procollagen? What factor is necessary in this process?
lysine and proline; vitamin C
what is the role of lysyl oxidase in collagen formation? Which factor must be present for the activity of lysyl oxidase?
facilitates covalent bond formation among tropocollagen molecules in fibril formation; Vitamin C
what are 3 diseases which result from mutations in collagen or deficiencies in factors involved in its formation?
Ehlers-Danlos syndromes, osteogenesis imperfects, scurvy
how many types of collagen are there?
12 types
which of the 4 types of collagen does not form fibers?
type IV
where are type I collagen molecules usually found?
dermis, tendon, bone, fibrocartilage
where are type II collagen molecules usually found?
hyaline cartilage, invertebral disk
where are type III collagen molecules usually found?
smooth muscle, reticular connective tissue
where are type IV collagen molecules usually found?
basement membrane
what is the meaning of argyrophilic?
silver loving
elastic fibers are composed of which two principal components?
elastin and fibrillin
which "amino acids" are important in connecting elastin molecules?
desmosine and isodesmosine
which is a disease which results from elastin deficiencies or mutations?
Marfan's syndrome
what are two elements of structural glycoproteins? What do they do?
laminin and fibronectin; they link elements of the ECM to each other and to basement membrane
______ is the name for the viscous, hydrated gel of glycosaminoglycans?
ground substance
what are the two major components of ground substance?
GAGs and proteoglycans
for what does GAG stand?
glycosaminoglycans
what is the term used for a clinical excess of ground substance?
edema
what are the two types of adipose tissue?
white (unilocular) fat and brown (multilocular) fat
in whom is brown fat the most common?
babies
what is the role of the uncoupling enzymes in the mitochonrdia of brown fat cells?
to produce heat
are adipocytes fixed or free connective tissue cells?
fixed
what is the role of plasma cells in the body?
create antibodies to respond to foreign bodies.
is fibroblast chromatin usually euchromatic or heterochromatic? Why?
eurochromatic; lots of protein production
from what stem cells are macrophages created (this is common of all mononuclear phagocytic system)?
hematopoeitic (bone marrow) cells
what are 3 types of macrophages present in diverse tissues?
Kupffer cells (liver), Langerhans cells (pancreas), osteoclasts (bone)
why is first exposure to antigen never severe?
after first exposure, body just created and replicates antibodies. No immune response elicited.
what is the name for the process by which mast cells release histamine and heparin?
degranulation
true or false. Histamine is a power bronchodilator and makes blood vessels permeable.
falso. It is a bronchoconstrictor and does make blood vessels more permeable
plasma cells differentiate from which cells?
B cells
which cells stain as 'clockface' cells?
plasma cells
which cell stains lots of perinuclear Golgi and lots of RER?
plasma cells
which component of ECM looks striated under EM?
collagen
what is the difference between pro- and tropocollagen?
tropocollagen has propeptides cleaved. Otherwise, same.
where does collagen hydroxylation occur? Under the auspice of which factor?
Golgi; Vitamin C
which is found on exterior of elastic fibers: elastin or fibrillin?
fibrillin
why is ground substance so important?
diffusion of nutrients
GAG molecules on a protein core connected to which molecule form proteoglycans? Via what?
hyaluronic acid via linker proteins
which system is responsible for preventing edema and collecting water?
lymphatic system
is loose connective tissue regular or irregular? Is it more cells or ECM?
irregular; cells
what are the two cagtegories of dense CT?
regular and irregular
which, dense or loose CT, are more capable of dealing with tensile stress?
dense
what is the name for the fat precursor cell that can become either brown or white fat?
lipoblast