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30 Cards in this Set

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what are the names of the two bone development mechanisms?
intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification
where is bone laid down in intramembranous ossification?
in place of preexisting mesenchyme, typically in a well-vascularized environment
how is immature bone formed in intramembranous ossification?
osteoblasts begin secreting osteoid which is subsequently mineralized into a poor-quality, immature woven bone.
what occurs following formation of woven bone in intramembranous ossification?
spicules of bone are replace through osteoclastic resorption and bone deposition by lemellar bone
endochondral ossification involves the replacement of what? This is best exemplified in which bones?
hyaline cartilage; long bones
long bone growth begins with the formation of what structure? Through which form of ossification?
bone collar; intramembranous
None
following formation of the bone collar in endochondral ossification, what happens to chondrocytes?
they hypertrophy and die
the release of what from hypertrophied chondrocytes in endochondral ossification causes calcification of the matrix?
matrix vesicles
how does calcified cartilage matrix stain in an H&E?
very basophilic
what is the name for the vasculature that penetrates the bone collar? What 3 types of cells are brought along?
periosteal bud; osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteoprogenitor cells
None
which cells are responsible for resorbing calcified cartilage in endochondral ossification?
osteoclasts
new bone matrix is laid down in endochondral ossification by which cells?
osteoblasts
the initial bone formed by osteoblasts in endochondral ossification is of what kind?
immature (primary, woven)
where is the secondary ossification center located in bone formation?
at the episphyseal growth plate
what is a primary spongiosa?
a spicule of woven bone laid down in intramembranous ossification
what is the site of intramembranous ossification in long bones? Of endochondral ossification?
bone collar; epiphyseal growth plate
what are the names of the 5 morphological zones of cartilage formation at the epiphyseal growth plate?
resting, proliferating, maturing, hypertrophy and provisional calcification, primary spongiosa
does growth in a bone stop completely with closure of epiphysis?
no, growth of girth continues at bone collar
during childhood, skeletal growth is stimulated by which hormone?
growth hormone
GH acts through which factors which are produced in liver and target skeletal tissues?
somatomedins
what is the name for the process by which spaces in trabeulcae are filled in to create compact bone?
compaction
if a primary spongiosa is destined to become cancellous bone, what must occur?
only replacemet of woven bone with lamellar bone
in which type of bone are primary osteons found?
in woven bone which has just undergone compaction and is in the process of being replaced by lamellar bone to form secondary osteons
during skeletogenesis, what is the name for the process of selective bone resorption and deposition?
bone modeling
what is the term used to descibe bone resorption and deposition which occurs throughout life, once skeletogenesis is complete? What is the name for the unit responsible for this process?
bone remodeling; bone remodeling unit or bone multicellular unit (BMU)
None
where does bone remodeling occur in trabecular bone? In compact bone?
on the surface; resorption cavities
what are the 3 steps in the bone remodeling sequence? What is the name for this sequence?
activation, resorption, formation; ARF sequence
uncoupling of ARF sequence results in which common disorder?
osteoporosis
which form of ossification is used in repair of bone fractures? Which structure is formed in break?
both forms; callus
which is the only location of the body where bone growth is strictly intramembranous?
skull