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101 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
general functions of cartilage
structural support of soft tissues
shock absorption in joints
reduce friction between joint sufraces
role in growth and development of long bones
mature cells in cartilage that secrete extracellular matrix
where chondrocytes are found
lacunae (cavities in cartilage)
makes up 95% of cartilage volume
predominant matrix components in cartilage
collagen and proteogylcans
how is most cartilage nourished?
relies on diffusion from vessels in the adjacent CT (perichondrium)
how is articular cartilage nourished?
the synovial fluid provides what?
for this particular type of cartilage?
this type of cartilage has no perichondrium
articular cartilage
chondroblasts are derived from
mesenchymal cells
chondroblasts that have surounded themselves in matrix
little champers filled with matrix in which chondrocytes reside
outer layer surrounding most cartilage
appositional growth of cartilage results from
inactive fibroblasts on perichondrium become chondroblasts and add to the surface of the existing cartilage
interstitial growth of cartilage
division of chondrocytes and deposition of more matrix
isogenous groups
"cell nests" multiple chondrocytes in one lacuna
most common type of cartilage
principle components hyaline cartilage matrix
type II collagen
locations where Hyaline cartilage is found
articular surfaces of moveable joints
ends of ribs
respiratory passages (larynx, trachea, bronchi)
forms epiphyseal plates of growing long bones
hyaline cartilage
elastic cartilage
similar to hyaline cartilage with the addition of elastic fibers
cartilage found in areas requiring flexible support
elastic cartilage
areas where elastic cartilage is found
auricle of ear, auditory tubes, epiglottis
color of elastic cartilage
yellow color due to elastin
combo of hyalin cartilage and dense CT
primariy fiber type in Fibrocartilage
type I collagen
ares where fibrocartilage is found
flexible strength, intervertebral discs, symphysis pubis, articular discs, menisci of knee
arrangement of cells in fibrocartilage
chondrocytes are in rows, there is no perichondrium
impaired cartilage function due too poor regenerative capacity
when can cartilage not be regenerated?
if injury is not adjacent to the perchondrium
if wound is large
what forms scar when cartilage is injured and not regenerated?
dense CT forms scar when...
can affect synovial joint function in aged cartilage
degenerative calcification
general functions of bone
support and attachment sites for soft tissues
protects vital organs
site of hematopoieses (formation of blood cells) is bone marrow
provides a reservoir of calcium and phosphate
classification criteria for mature bone
architecture (compact or spongy(cancellous))
shape (long, short, flat, irregular)
exbanded end of long bone with articular cartilage
shaft of long bone
epiphyseal line
remnant of the epiphyseal plate (growth area in young bones)
covering of outer bone surface with outer fibrous layer and inner cellular layer (containing osteoprogenitor cells)
Sharpey's fibers
collagen fibers from periosteum that penetrate the mineralized bone matrix, especially in areas where Ligaments and Tendons attach
line all internal spaces of bone (single layer of bone-lining and osteoprogenitor cells)
found on the surfaces of bone tissue
synthesize organic components of bone matrix
differentiate into osteocytes
organic components of bone matrix
Type I collagen
mature cells found within the lacunae of the bone matrix

have processes that communicated with oterh cells via canaliculi
channels in bone that allow osteocyte processes to facilitate communication with otehr cells
multinucleated cells
function in bone reapsorption
lie within Howship's lacunae
Howship's lacunae
depressions in which osteoclasts reside also know as "resporption bays"
what are osteoprogenitor cells
where are they primarily found?
stem cells from which osteoblasts and osteocytes derive

found in periosteum and endosteum
Organic Bone Matrix components
fibers: Type I collagen
Ground Substance: structural gylcoproteins
Inorganic Component of Bone Matrix
bone mineral
hydroxyapatite-like material (mostly Ca and Phosphate)
mineralized bone matrix only allows what kind of bone growth?
appositional bone growth
first bone tissue that is produced (or sometimes as a result of disease)
woven (immature, primary bone)
wove bone characteristics
non-lamellar, random weave
woven bone is usually replaced by
lamellar bone
osteoblasts secrete what?
organic component of bone matrix
what triggers the deposition of inorganic matrix on the collage network
alkaline phosphatase-rich matrix vesicles
mineralization of matrix may take how long?
several months
lamellar bone
(mature, secondary) laid out in well-defined layers
lamella of compact bone
inner and outer circumferential lamella
concentric lamellae forming the walls of the osteons
interstitial lamellae
remnants of former osteons, may be found amist current osteons
osteocytes within an osteon are connected to eachother by
cellular bridges that run through bony canliculi, which are in continuity with the haversion canal
where the blood supply to the osteon runs
haversion canal
volkman's canals
lateral connections among the haversion canals
cancellous bone differs from compact in that...
osteons are absent in which type of bone?
Elastic Cartilage
Type II + elastic fibers
(external Ear)
What type of tissue is shown here?
developing hyaline cartilage
What is this tissue?
trabeculae, developing bone
What is the structure indicated by the arrow? What kind of tissue is it made of?
mesenchyme (embryonic CT) surrounding developing bone (intramembranous ossification- because bone is not replacing exiciting cartilage)
What is lighter staining tissue surrounding the darker staining pink structures?
What type of cell is indicated by arrow?
What type of cell is indicated by arrow?
Osteoid- thin layer of unmineralized matrix
Non-staining region in upper right corner of micrograph (hint- osteoblasts are lined up just above region)
epiphyses- hyaline cartilage
What is the region indicated by the arrow?
metaphyseal region (or osteogenic zone) of developing bone-
endochondral bone formation is occuring there: lamellae of new bone deposited on remnants of calcified cartilage
what does the arrow indicate? what is taking place there?
developing compact bone (taken from a picture of the cortex of a diaphysis)
What type of tissue is in the top part of this slide?
metaphyseal region marked by hypertrophy of the chondrocytes , the calcification of their matrix (evidenced by the more deeply basophilic staining), and the deposition of eosinophilic bone material over the remnants of calcified cartilage matrix (towards right)
what region is indicated by arrow?
what is happening?
calcified cartilage matrix
what is the purple tissue indicated by arrow?
hypertrophy and death
What type of cells are these? What is happening?
bone material, deposited on purple calcified cartilage matrix
What is the pink tissue indicated by arrow?
osteoblast, laying down woven bone on calcified cartilage matrix
What is the cell indicated by arrow? What is it doing?
woven bone
what type of tissue predominates (and is indicated by arrow)
Resting Zone (reserve cartilage zone)
What is the zone indicated by arrow?
Zone of proliferation
What zone is shown in lower left part of slide?
the zone of maturing cartilage where cell size increases and the cells begin to arrange themselves in columns
What zone is shown here?
zone of hypertrophy and calcification in which the chondrocytes grow greatly in size, die, and their surrounding matrix becomes calcified (deeply basophilic)
What zone is shown in the bottom left region?
Metaphyseal (Osteogenic) Zone- where bone tissue is laid down upon spicules of calcified cartilage matrix.
What zone is shown here?
Woven bone with osteoblasts forming edosteum on the right
what is the tissue indicated by the arrow? what is the region to the right?
Periosteum (woven bone to right)
What is the arrow point to? What is to the right?
osteoclast is a large, multinucleated cell with noticeably eosinophilic cytoplasm. Often times, but not apparent in this image, they may be found in a depression in the bone surface known as a resorption bay or Howship's lacunae. The remnants of calcified cartilage matrix seen here are a sure indication that the bone seen in this image if forming by endochondral ossification.
What type of cell is indicated by the arrow?
2ndary ossificaiton center, developing in the epiphysis- invasion of the epiphyseal cartilage by blood vessels and perivascular connective tissue elements containing osteoprogenitor and other cells is the first step in the development of the secondary ossification center.
What is developing in the circle region? Where is this region located?
endosteum along edge of woven (immature, primary) bone
What is indicated by the arrow?
lammelar (mature, secondary) bone
what is shown in running horiz/diag in this slide
metaphyseal bone, epiphyseal cartilage visible in upper left, epiphyseal bone (NOT SHOWN) would be exterior to that
what tissue predominates in slide? What is the tissue visible in upper left?
epiphyseal bone, epiphyseal cartilage (growth plate), and beginning of transition into developing metaphyseal bone
What are the 3 layers here from top left to bottom right?
the very thin zone of reserve cartilage. When this population of cells is exhausted and replaced by bone tissue, the bone can no longer growth in length at this site. This is known as closure of the epiphysis.
what zone of cartilage is shown here? why is it significant?
marrow within spaces of immature cancellous bone
what is shown in the circular spaces? what are the surrounding structures?
a portion of the zygapophyseal joint between successive vertebra, with the articular surfaces being covered by hyaline cartilage.
the space indicated is part of what?
the resorption cavity as evidence of bone remodeling.
What does this space tell you about the surrounding tissue?
Haversion canal
What is indicated by arrow?
what is the structure demarcated by the circle?
lacunae housing the shrunken remains of osteocytes.
arrow indicates what?
Volksman's Canal- connects Haversion systems
What is this?
lacunae with canaliculi (which in life would contain cellular processes interconnecting neighboring osteocytes, are visualized here as the black 'tentacles' radiating from the lacunar spaces)
What is shown here?