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57 Cards in this Set

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What is the term for a program in execution?
A process
What type of system executes jobs?
A batch system
What type of system has user programs or tasks?
A time-shared system
What is found in the text section of a process?
The program code
Which part of a process contains temporary data, such as function parameters, return addresses, and local variables?
the process stack
Where are global variables found in a process?
in the data section
In reference to a process, what is the heap?
The heap is memory that is dynamically allocated during process run time.
What changes as a process executes?
it's state
List the states a process can be in:
- New
- Running
- Waiting
- Ready
- Terminated
In which state in the process being created?
New
In which process state are instruction being executed?
Running
In which state are processes waiting to be assigned to a processor?
Ready
In which state is the process waiting for some even to occur?
Waiting
During which state has a process finished execution?
Terminated
What term is used to describe how a process is represented in the operating system and contains many pieces of information associated with aspecific process?
By a Process Control Block (PCB)
List the information that can be included in the Process Control Block (PCB):
- Process State
- Program Counter
- CPU Registers
- CPU Scheduling Information
- Memory Management Information
- Accouting Information
- I/O Status Information
What selects an available process for program execution on the CPU?
The Process Scheduler
As processes enter a system, where are they put?
The job queue
What is the name for the list of processes that are residing in manin memory and are ready and waiting to execute?
the ready queue
What is the term for a list of processes waiting for a particular I/O device?
the device queue
What term is used to describe a process that has been selected for execution?
Dispatched
What can occur once a process has been allocated the CPU and is executing?
- The process could issue an I/O request and be placed in an I/O queue
- The process could create a new subprocess and wait for the subprocess's termination.
- The process could be removed forcibly from the CPU, as result of an interrupt and be put back in the ready queue.
Which scheduler selects processes from a pool, on a mass storage device, and loads them into memory for execution?
Long-term scheduler (job scheduler)
Which scheduler is used to select processes that are ready to execute and allocated the CPU to one of them?
Short-term scheduler (CPU scheduler)
Which scheduler, in a time-sharing system, is used to control swapping?
Medium-term scheduler
What is swapping?
When a process is moved out of memory and brought back into memory at a later time to continue exectuion
What must occur when a process needs to moved out of memory in order to save the current context of the process?
A state save
After a state save what happens so the process can resume operations?
state restore
What is occurs when the CPU performs a state save on the cuurent running process and state restore of a different process?
context switch
What is a parent process?
A process that creates other processes
New processes created by the parent process are called _________.
children
When a process creates a new process, what are the two possibilities for exectuion?
- The parent continues to execute concurrently with its children.
- The parent waits until some or all of its children have terminated.
When a process creates a new process, what are the possibilites in terms of the address space of the new process?
- The child process is a duplicate of the parent process
- The child process has a new program loaded into it
What is the fork() system call used for?
It used to create a new process that consists of a copy of the address space of the original process.
When the fork() system call is used to create a child process, what is the return code for the child?
The return code would be a (nonzero) process identifier of the child
What is the exec() system call used for?
It is used to replace the process's memory space with new program.
What is the function in the Win32 API that used to create a new process?
CreateProcess()
When does a process terminate?
When it is finished executing its final statement and asks the operating system to delete it
What system call is used to delete a process after it has finished executing?
exit()
Why might a parent terminate the execution of one of it's children?
- The child has exceeeded its usage of resources it has been allocated.
- The task assigned to the child is no longer required.
- The parent is exiting, and the operating system does not allow a child to continue if its parent terminates.
What is cascading termination?
This occurs when the parent if terminated and operating systems terminates all of the parent's children.
When is a process considered to be independent?
When it cannot be affected by the other processes executing in the system
When is a process cooperating?
When shares data with other processes
What are some reasons for process cooperation?
- Information sharing
- Computation speedup
- Modularity
- Convenience
What type of mechanism is required for cooperating processes to exchange data and information?
Interprocess Communication (IPC)
What are the two fundamental models of interprocess communication?
- shared memory
- message passing
Describe shared memory as an IPC.
Processes can exchange information by reading and writing data to the shared region.
Describe message passing as an IPC.
Communications take place by means of messages excahnged between the cooperating processes.
In a shared-memory system, who is responsible for ensuring processes are not writing to same location simultaneously?
The processes
In a Message-Passing system, describe direct communication.
each process that wants to communicate must explicitly name the recipient or sender of the communication
In a Message-Passing system, what type of communication used mailboxes or ports?
Indirect Communication
What is a socket?
An endpoint for communication
How is a socket identified?
By an IP address concatenated with a port number
What are the three different types of sockets provided by Java?
- Connection-oriented (TCP), Socket class
- Connectionless (UDP), DatagramSocket class
- MulticastSocket
What is a Remote Procedure Call (RPC)?
A way to abstract the procedure-call mechanism for use between systems with network connections. Allows a client to invoke a procedure on a remote host as it would invoke a procedure locally.
What is a stub used for?
The stub is used to locate the port on the other host and marshals the parameters to the other host. The receiving host has stub as well that is used to invoke the procedure on the other side.
What is the Java feature similar to RPCs?
Remote Method Invocation (RMI)