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62 Cards in this Set

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What are the top 5 language groups for ELs in Calif. in 2005?
1. Spanish 1.3 mill (46%)
2. Vietnamese
3. Hmong
4. Cantonese
5. Tagalog
What are the 6 "Pull" factors that attract immigrants to U.S.?
1. Economic opportunity
2. Freedom & democracy
3. Family unification
4. Religious freedom
5. Freedom of speech
6. Health care availability & education for all
What year span did the largest jump of ELs occur & what was the # of ELs in Calif.?
1986 (400,000 ELs) to 1996 (1,200,000 ELs)
Approx. how many EL students were there in Calif. in 2005?
What are the 6 "Push" factors that cause people to leave their country?
1. Poverty/Economic problems
2. Oppression by govt./war
3. Family separation
4. Religious persecution
5. Censorship
6. Health & education restricted
What are the 3 MOST DIFFICULT things that immigrants face when they come to the U.S.?
1. Having their children turn away from their values, customs & language
2. Deciding which family member will emigrate 1st
3. Leaving family & friends behind (most difficult!)
What are the 3 EASIEST things that immigrants face when they come to the U.S.?
1. Working in low paying jobs or maybe having to hold several jobs to survive
2. Living in a refugee camp waiting to be sponsored
3. Living in substandard housing, possibly even in an unsafe neighborhood.
What are the 2 BIGGEST reasons for immigration/migration?
1. Political
2. Economic
What are 3 ECONOMIC factors in immigration?
1. The great disparity in the standard of living attainable in the U.S.
2. During cycles of boom, in U.S.--> immigrants come & during cycles of bust --> immigrants leave
3. Most newcomers experience a period of economic hardship
What are 2 POLITICAL factors for immigration?
1. "Pushed" to U.S. bec. of political instability or unfavorable political policies
2. Political condition in U.S. determine whether or not immigrants are accepted or denied.
What are 3 ways that the "face" of America is changing?
1. Shift from predominantely European American to substantially non-white
2. Inc. in Hispanics
3. Asian pop. increased 100% from 1980 to 1990
4. Calif. has experienced the initial wave of immigration that will soon impact the entire U.S.
What are 5 ways that America is impacted by it's changing population?
1. Two minority groups in U.S. (immigrants & economically disadvantaged) both face similiar challenges
2. Poverty hits minority children particulary hard
3. Black, Latino or Native Americans are less likely to succeed in school
4. Large city school populations are overwhelmingly minority.
5. Many minority students have home languages other than English which make it difficult for schools to find teachers with 2nd language competencies.
How does U.S. FOREIGN POLICY Affect immigration?
Because it is mostly driven by CAPITALISM.
How does FAMILY UNIFICATION effect immigration?
1. Immigration has been a male-dominated activity
2. Once settled, the immigrants seek to bring their family members.
How do IMMIGRATION LAWS & POLICIES in the U.S. affect immigration?
1. The policies are affected by economic cycles: when workers are needed, they allow for immigrants & when jobs are scarce, immigration is restricted
2. The immigrant preference system emphasizes family ties 1st, occupations 2nd & diversity (coming from countries other than our principal sources) 3rd.
What are the 3 LEGAL STATUS classifications of immigrants?
1. DOCUMENTED - legal residents who entered officially and are protected (some are refugees)
2. UNDOCUMENTED IMMIGRANTS - residents w/o documentation who live in fear of being deported
3. UNDOCUMENTED CHILDREN - legally entitled to public education & their immigration papers cannot be solicited at school when they register
Describe "Refugee," "Immigrant, & "Undocumented"
REFUGEE-forced to leave country bec. of political persecution & cannot return until changes occur; may receive public assistance
IMMIGRANT-Voluntarily leave country for socio-economic reasons; free to go back, but usually stay in new country; stimulus for business & national economy
UNDOCUMENTED-voluntarily leave country for socio-economic reasons, but do not have VISA and thus it is difficult to return; live in fear; help support Calif. economy
What are the 4 phases of ACCULTURATION?
1. Honeymoon Stage
2. Culture Shock/Fatigue
3. Adjustment/Adaptation
4. Acceptance
Describe the HONEYMOON STAGE of acculturation.
EMOTIONS: exhilaration, excitement, hopefulness;
PSYCHOLOGICAL: open receptivity, naivete, fragile feeling
HELP: clear communication, connection with others, understanding, being part of the group, buddy system
Describe the CULTURE SHOCK/FATIGUE stage of acculturation.
EMOTIONS: bewilderment, discouragement, depression, confusion
PSYCHOLOGICAL: lower self-esteem, introversion, doubt, anger
HELP: Same as honeymoon + honoring & acceptance
Describe the ADJUSTMENT/ADAPTATION stage of acculturation.
EMOTIONS: understanding & appreciation of new culture; accept differences between the old & new culture
PSYCHOLOGICAL: new awareness; increasesd self-esteem
HELP: Same as other phases + patience & support
Describe the ACCEPTANCE stage of acculturation.
EMOTIONS: identification with the new culture
PSYCHOLOGICAL: higher self-esteem; higher energy
HELP: same as other phases + becoming a buddy to help others
Understanding the sociocultural rules of language & of discourse. Students need to understand the social rules of American culture in the classroom & teachers need to be aware of these factors so they don't make incorrect assumptions & assessments of students' learning & behavior. Some aspects of language need to be explicitly taught (e.g. when it is appropriate to speak, how to greet people, what gestures & idiomatic expressions mean...)
What are the 9 SOCIOLINGUISTIC FACTORS (non-verbal) that can effect the classroom
1. Gestures (e.g. pointing, shaking hands, holding hands)
2. Facial Expressions
3. Eye Contact (looking someone in the eye is considered disrespectful in traditional cultures)
4. Proxemic (Distance between speakers)
5. Touching - not o.k. in some cultures
6. Styles/Registers - the way you speak (e.g. formal in England vs. informal in America)
7. Dialect
8. Figures of Speech (e.g. I'm fixin to have..._
9. Silence - in Asia it's a sign of respect
How can teachers find out what are the acceptable SOCIOLINGUISTIC FACTORS in their students' culture?
Ask the students and their parents what are acceptable. Don't make assumptions!
What are the 5 Patterns & Practices of ORAL DISCOURSE? (i.e. how we talk to each other differs between cultures--none are right or wrong)
1, Opening & closing conversations
2. Timing of responses
3. Volume of voice
4. Use/role of silence
5. Turn taking
When asking an English learner a question, how long should you wait for a reply? (i.e. how long it takes them to process question)
7 seconds
How are language and culture related?
Language is a subset of culture; language & culture CANNOT be separated; it is impossible to achieve a proficiency level in a language without also internalizing the culture
What are the ORAL DISCOURSE PATTERNS (i.e. Cultural Thought Patterns) for Engish, Semitic, Asian, Romance, & Russian
ENGLISH - Very direct (short & to the point)!
SEMITIC - zig zag
ASIAN - circular
ROMANCE - Somewhat indirect
RUSSIAN - Somewhat indirect
How do ORAL DISCOURSE PATTERNS effect English Learners?
Each culture has its own logic & rhetoric; no one thinking pattern is better or worse than another; students who are good writers in their native language may have difficulty writing in their 2nd language; since language controls your world view, speakers of different languages may have different world views; when assessing students' work, it is important to separate their linguistic errors from their cultural thought pattern and to validate the content (?)
What are the acronyms for SOCIAL and ACADEMIC communication & how do they differ?
SOCIAL - BICS (e.g. playground talk)
ACADEMIC - CALP (Cognitive Academic Language Proficient_

(Note: It is easier for kids to learn BICS than CALP & the way they learn communication styles, strategies, conflict resolution, etc. will differ between the 2 types)
List some TEACHING STRATEGIES that are beneficial for English Learners.
1. Teacher's role is to stimulate, motivate & facilitate (not direct)
2. Have students work in groups so they can interact & learn from each other
3. Make learning interactive
4. Present material in a meaningful contexgt
5. Base lesson on the needs, interests & background experience of students
6. Learning is not just the finished product, but also the process
7. Make students responsible for themselves & each other
Compare & Contrast TRADITIONAL CULTURES (more rural) to 1ST WORLD/WESTERN CULTURES (more urban)
TRADITIONAL: Interdependence (Family); Cooperation; Hierarchy, Rank, Status; Favoritism toward males; Formality; Indirectness; Fate
WESTERN: Independence (indiviual); competition; egalitarianism; increasing female roles; informality; directness; mastery of one's own future
(Note: the world is moving toward Western culture, but it is important for teacher to aware of differences, but NOT judgmental!)
What are the diffences between the SURFACE CULTURE and the DEEP CULTURE?
SURFACE CULTURE: Clothing, Government, Language, Music/Dance, Family Structure, Shelter, Technology, Food, Arts/Literature, Mores
DEEP CULTURE: Values, Social roles & status, world view, mores, paterns of work & leisure, family structure, gender roles, beliefs & expectations, customs, child-rearing, non-verbal communication
(NOTE: many people make the mistatke of only speaking to the "Surface Culture," but it is important to also address the "Deep Culture")
The process by which one cultural group takes on & incorporated one or more cultural patterns (i.e. going from monocultural to bicultural)
Difference among individuals from DIFFERENT cultural backgrounds.
The capacity to negotiate comfortably 2 sets of cultural assumptions, paterns, values, beliefs, & behaviors; i.e. to be comfortable in BOTH situations so that kids can interact appropriately both at school and at home; people become bicultural through acculturation; Biculturism is the goal for all immigrants!
NO culture's values, ethics or morals as a whole may be judged as inherently superior or inferior to another's; i.e. they are "relative"
Members of a pluralistic socity RECOGNIZE the contributions of each group of the COMMON CIVILIZATION & encourage the maintencance & development of different life styles, languages, & convictions; e.g. students benefit from learning about diffent cultures & they should teach about different cultures all year long--not just during Black History month!
The results of an impact or encounter, that an individual or a group may experience when confronted with the ideas of a totally different culture; the 2nd phase of acculturation
The notion that ALL CULTURES embrace the same ideals (e.g. respect); believing this is very arrogant!
The more SIMILAR one culture is to another, the EASIER it is to adapt to the 2nd culture (e.g. Canadians immigrating to U.S. is easier than Mexicans)
Belief in the INHERENT SUPERIORITY of one's group and culture --> very arrogant!
A structural process designed to FOSTER understanding, acceptance, and contructive relations among people of MANY different cultures.
What is CULTURE?
The SUM TOTAL of ways of LIVING, including values, beliefs, esthetic standings, linguistic expressions, patterns of thinking, behavior norms & styles of communication, which a GROUP OF PEOPLE has developed to assure its survival in a particular PHYSICAL & HUMAN environment.
Differences among individuals from the SAME cultural background (e.g. Spanish, Cuban, Mexican)
A process in which an individual or group COMPLETELY takes on the traits of another culture, LEAVING BEHIND the original cultural identity and being completely absorbed in the the new cultural tradition; this is the opposite of bicultural and it is BAD!
Refers to the ORIGIN, classifification, & characteristics of people.
What are 9 reasons to address issues of CULTURE in the classroom?
1. To create an INCLUSIVE, SUPPORTIVE, & COOPERATIVE classroom/school culture where no one feels like an outsider; this lowers students' affective filters (i.e. anxiety level)
2. To more effectively teach DIVERSE students
3. To improve SELF-ESTEEM & RESPECT FOR DIFFERENCES by allowing students to see people like themselves reflected positively in the classroom.
4. To ACCULTURATE students to the expectations of the classroom & school, while valuing & respecting their home culture
5. To help students become BICULTURAL without feeling they need to assimiliate & give up their own identity.
6. To prepare ALL students to live in a GLOBAL COMMUNITY & to work effectively in a MULTICULTRAL workplace
7. To help students feel comfortable with AMBIGUITY (i.e. to understand that having different world views, communication styles, beliefs, & values is o.k.)
8. To train students to look at life through MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES (i.e. through others' eyes)
9. To create an ANTI-BIAS classroom & school culture
List 7 factors that contribute to classroom & school environments which support CULTURAL DIVERSITY & STUDENT ACHIEVEMENT.
1. High expectations of ALL students
2. High level of respect for CULTURAL & LINGUISTIC diversity
3. High level of INTERACTION
4. MULTICULTURAL perspectives
5. Use of PROACTIVE APPROACH to cultural conflict
6. Zero tolerance for biases
7. Strong PARENT/GUARDIAN & COMMUNITY involvement (e.g. translating papers for parents)
What are Banks' 4 APPROACHES to Multicultural Curriculum Reform from least effective to most effective?
1. Contributions
2 Ethnic Additive
3. Transformation
4. Decision-making/Social Action)
Describe the CONTRIBUTION approach to multicultural reform?
Study specific people & events on certain dates; aka "Heroes & Holidays; easy to implement, but is superficial & does can reinforce stereotypes & evades issues like racism & global view
Describe the ETHNIC ADDITIVE approach to multicultural reform?
Add a book, lesson or units to curriculum; better than "Contributions Approach," but does not teach relationship between diffent cultures
Describe the TRANSFORMATION approach to multicultural reform.
To RESTRUCTURE the curriculum to include a VARIETY of cultural perspectives; this is a GOOD approach & it leads to divergent thinking & understanding of the the complexity of U.S., but there is no community connection
Describe the DECISION-MAKING or SOCIAL ACTION approach to multicultural reform.
Students study & carry out a project related to a social problem; this leads to active involvement, links the past to the present, empowerment & critical thinking; may go a little too far???
List 10 Things a teacher can do to provide CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE instruction.
1. OBSERVE or INTERVIEW student to obtain information about their cultural backgrounds & learning styles.
2. Ask STUDENTS to interview their parents/families to find out more about their culture.
3. VISIT STUDENTS' HOMES to learn about their culture.
4. Have HIGH EXPECTATIONS of students' performance
5. Organize instruction to account for DIFFERNT LEARNING STYLES
6. Facilitate POSITIVE INTERACTIONS among culturally diverse students
7. Discuss topics like PREJUDICE, DISCRIMINATION & CULTURAL CONFLICTS with students
8. Infuse CULTURAL DIVERSITY into curriculum
9. Make classroom environment relect students' CULTURAL BACKGROUND as well as respect for other cultures.
10. Encourage PARENTS/FAMILIES to participate in classroom.
What is an LEA?
(L)ocal (E)ducation (A)gency - can be a school, district, etc. for PARENTS of English learners; purpose is to hold meetings & inform parents on how they can be involved in their children's education for attaining English proficiency & achieving high academic levels.
What is the law regarding sending notices in other languages?
Whe 15% or more of the student population speaks a single primary language other than English, all notices sent by the school to the parent or guardian MUST be written in both English & the primary language.
What is ELAC?
(E)nglish (L)earner (A)dvisory (C)ommittee - any school with 21 or more ELs MUST have an ELAC that gives the parents a voice in the school (e.g. advises principal, staff & school site council on EL program and assists in needs assessment, language consensus, etc.)
What is ELAC?
(E)nglish (L)earner (A)dvisory (C)ommittee - any school with 21 or more ELs MUST have an ELAC that gives the parents a voice in the school (e.g. advises principal, staff & school site council on EL program and assists in needs assessment, language consensus, etc.)
What is DELAC?
(D)istrict (E)nglish (L)earner (A)dvisory (C)ommittee - Must have if the LEA has 51 or more ELs; at least 51% of the members are parents of ELs & they look at the DISTRICT plans with regard to ELs