Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

87 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is FEP?
FEP - Fluent English Proficient; students are truly bilingual; they test HIGHER on state tests than English Only students!
What are the 2 categories of FEP?
IFEP - Initially English Proficent (never in EL program)
RFEP - Redesignated Fluent Proficient (graduated from EL program)
What is EO, EL, ESL, LEP & ELL ?
EO - English Only
EL - English Learner
ELL - English Language Learner
ESL - English as a Second Language
LEP - Limited English Proficient
(NOTE: EL,ELL, LEP & ESL are the same)
What is HLS?
Home Language Survey - this is taken by ALL students when they enter school to determine whether they're EO or EL
What is CELDT?
California English Language Diagnostic Test - Test given to ELs to determine their level (1-5)
What are the 5 EL levels as determined by the CELDT (California English Language Diagnostic Test)?
1 - B - Begninning
2 - EI - Early Intermediate
3 - I - Intermediate
4 - EA - Early Advanced
5 - A - Advanced
(NOTE: levels 1-3 are considered BICS/social; levels 4 & 5 are considered CALP/academic--it takes longer to learn CALPS than BICS!)
What are L1 & L2?
L1 - 1st/native/primary language
L2 - 2nd language
What are BICS & CALP?
BICS - Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (Playground or social talk; EL levels 1-3)
CALPS - Cognitive Academic Language Proficieny (academic talk; EL levels 4 & 5)
What is CUP & SUP?
CUP - Common Underlying Proficiency (things that are the SAME in L1 & L2)
SUP - Separate Underlying Proficiency (things that are DIFFERENT in L1 & L2)
What is SDAIE?
SDAIE - Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (a "sheltered English" program for EL levels 3, 4 & 5; the purpose is to give ELs access to the CORE CURRICULUM; students are taught the academic CONTENT at GRADE LEVEL in ENGLISH)
What is ELD?
ELD - English Language Development; A systemic & explicit teaching of how the ENGLISH LANGUAGE works (i.e. vocab., fluency, form & function); Primarily for EL levels 1, 2 & low 3s, but also used for levels 4 & 5 to fill in gaps; PULL-OUT program to help ELs develop ENGLISH SKILLS (listening, speaking, reading & writing)according to ELD standards; students are taught at their ABILITY/PROFICIENCY LEVEL (i.e. below grade level); provide ELs with MANY OPPORTUNITIES to practice language skills at their proficiency level AND at systematically teach language skills at the NEXT LEVEL of proficiency
What is CBELD?
Content Based English Language Development; PULL-OUT program for EL levels 1, 2 & low level 3s to teach ENGLISH SKILLS to ELs though CONTENT at their ABILITY LEVEL (not grade level); purpose is to access the core curriculum & begin developing academic vocabulary
What is SEI?
Structured English Immersion; an EL program where ELs & EOs are mixed; program includes both SDAIE & ELD; students are placed if program if the have "less than reasonable fluency"; program usually lasts 1 yr.; students are taught overwhelmingly in ENGLISH
What is CST?
California Standard Test
What is Lau v. Nichols?
1974 Supreme Court decision that providing the same instruction & materials in English to ELs was not equitable--i.e. ELs need modifications & extra services
What is NCLB, Title III?
2001 No Child Left Behind, Title III provides federal funding for ELs & immigrants; requires accountability for progress of ELs
What is IDEA?
2004 Individuals with Disability Education Act; closely aligns w/ NCLB to ensure equity, accountability & excellence in education for children with disabilites
What is Proposition 227?
1998 proposition that required all instruction be overwhelmingly in ENGLISH, but still promote & validate primary language; alternative programs available through waiver process
What is Williams v. State of California?
2004 decision that requires Calif. schools to provide text books, maintenance of facilities & appropriately authorized staff (including teachers of ELs); i.e. must provide textbooks, toilets & teachers!
What is a HERITAGE LANGUAGE program?
A language that is indigeous (e.g. Navajo, Chumash, Hawaiian...); a community "will" creates a heritage language program or a majority language group's belief in the value of learning a 2nd language (Video: French is a heritage language in Louisiana)
What is a DUAL IMMERSION Program?
A program for both ELs and EOs where students are taught in both L1 & L2; start in Kindergarten with 90% L2 and 10% L1 and gradually increase L1 until 50% of the kids are EL and 50% of the kids are EO; students are placed by "parental exception waiver"; this is the goal of ACCULTURATION; Use ELD & SDAIE
What is an ENGLISH ONLY Program?
A program where all kids are taught in English ONLY; the belief is that common language is a unifier and that students wil be more academically successful; this is the goal of ASSMIMILATION
What are 4 EQUITY ISSUES related to the education of ELs?
1. PROGRAM PLACEMENT (length of time in program; tracking, segregation, special education, gifted educatio, access to AP)
2. STUDENT DATA (big Achievement Gap for ELs compared with EOs; higher Retention/promotion gap for ELs; Higher Dropout Expulsion & Detention rates for ELs)
3. STAFFING (Maldistribution of teachers--i.e. less qualified teachers are placed at lower performing schools
4. FUNDING (even though there is funding for EL students, there is still a big inequity--i.e. there is little local funding at minority schools
A "regular" classroom composed of both ELs & EOs that is taught overwhelmingly in English; for ELs with "Reasonable Fluency"; Uses ELD & SDAIE
Students are taught core academics in their PRIMARY LANGUAGE and have 1 hr. of ELD; they are mainstreamed for their electives; used for EL levels 1 &2; placement is based on a "Parental Exception Waiver"; Uses ELD and Access to core in L1/L2
What are 3 types of PARENTAL EXCEPTION WAIVERS that parents can sign to keep their EL students out of EL program?
1. ENGLISH SPEAKERS (knows English based on standardized tests)
2. OLDER STUDENTS (10 yrs. or older; informed belief by principal & educators that it is best alternative for student)
3. SPECIAL NEEDS (physical, emotional, psychological or educational; principal & educators must agree this is best alternative)
What is the link between ORAL and WRITTEN language for EL students?
For ELs, it is very important to go back and forth from Oral to Written AND from Written to Oral; e.g it is helpful to start with Oral before writing an essay; examples of Oral: retelling, role playing & paraphrasing
What are 5 PERSONAL FACTORS that affect English Language Literacy Development?
1. VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE - how well vocab. is developed & level of vocab. (social vs. academic)
2. EDUCATION BACKGROUND (prior knowledge, literacy skils, previous schooling, background knowledge (familiarity w/ concepts)
3. LEVEL OF ENGLISH PROFICIENCY - Beginning to Avdanced in listening, speaking, reading & writing
4. PRIMARY LANGUAGE - how well developed literacy skills are & linguistic differences bet. primary lang. & English
5. MOTIVATION - necessity, personal importance & affiliation (e.g. teacher, peers)
What are 10 PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES that affect English Language Literacy Across the Curriculum?
1. Integrate listening, speaking, reading & writing
2. Provide a balanced, comprehensive reading program
3. Use standards-based thematic unit organization
4. Create a language-rich environment
5. Adapt instruction & materials to meet the special need of ELs
6. Plant meaningful & purposeful literacy activities
7. Select appropriate reading materials
8. Utilize ELs prior knowlege
9. Scafford literacy activities
10. Provide organized, systematic, explicit instruction in key skills
What are 8 effective approaches for developin Reading & Writing ACROSS THE CURRICULUM?
1. Frontloading Vocabulary & Language Functions.
2. Language Experience Approach
3. Interactive Journals
4. Shared Reading
5. Learning Logs
6. Process Writing
7. Graphic Organizers
8. Pre-Reading Acitivities
In a systematic & explicit matter, PRE-TEACHING the vocabulary & language functions in the content area; use for ELD or SDAIE; teach language FORMS (e.g. I think you should...; according to the newspaper..., the West coast is___ whereas the East coast is___) & FUNCTIONS (e.g. to persuade, to inform, to compare & contrast)
Use for ELD in lower grades; the teacher writes down exactly what the student says & then the students reads the story back to the teacher; holistic approach; kids "self monitor;"
Teacher & student write in the same journal in response to one another; increases self-esteem due to teacher attention; Use in ELD to work on fluency & in SDAIE to work on content
ELD strategy--Read a passage 3 times:
1. Intro. & motivation; book walk; teacer reads w/ animation to develop love of reading
2. Discuss concepts of print; clarification of vocab.; teachers rereads to build comprehension & discuss syntax
3. Differentiated Instructions--Emergent readers (phonemic elements); Early Readers (letter/word awareness; Fluent Readers (phonics); Teacher & student reread; Literature extensions
Journals that students use to reflect on their learning in a particular content area; "Metacognitive Strategy" - helps make students aware of how they learn & what resources they most successfully utilize
SDAIE strategy; 3 stages of writing:
1. PREWRITING (brainstorming, discussion, fronloading vocab., research/outline, graphic organizer)
2. WRITING - 1st & 2nd drafts
3. EDITING - Revising, publishing for sharing, bookmaking or final draft
VISUAL devices used to record, group & classify info. about a specific topic(e.g. Venn diagrams, flow charts, clusters/webs/mapping, sotry ladder, story board, outline, matricies); crucial for ELs bec. they are linguistically "sheltered," but cognitively demanding!
Help connect learners with the cultural context of a book or passage; help to build their knowledge

Pre-reading activities: group brainstorming, use of pictures, charts & realia; field trips, nature walks& guest speakers
What is the difference between L1 AND L2, L3, L4...?
Your 1st language is ACQUIRED, whereas, subsequent languages are LEARNED based on your 1st language
How are ELD & SDAIE similar?
They both use many of the same strategies such as: scaffolding, frontloading, realia, graphic organizers, interactive journals, cooperative groups, visuals, brainstorming, etc.
What are 3 GROUPING STRATEGIES for students?
1. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT (ELD) - primary language; proficiency levels; mix ELs with proficient English speakers
2. CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT (SDAIE) - Primary language, Proficiency level, Prior knowlege/schooling; Reading levels
3. CLASSROOM COMMUNITY BUILDING - use mixed, heterogeneous grouping; make sure the "affective filter" is low so ELs feel o.k. about making mistakes; invite & involve parents to share their culture & experiences
What are the GROUPING STRATEGIES for each of the 5 EL levels?
LEVEL 1: mix ELs with fluent English speakers for hands-on, concrete activites (e.g. P.E., Art)
LEVEL 2: mix 1 or more EL from the SAME background for conceptually demanding or abstract work; Preview in L1, teach lesson in L2 & Review in L1
LEVEL 3: Mix ELs with native speakers for hands-on & mix with 1 or more students of same background for conceptually demadig or abstract material
LEVEL 4 & 5: Mix with native-ENGLISH speakers for ALL activities
What are 3 things that are important for the PHYSICAL SETTING of a classroom?
1. SUPPORTS STUDENT INTERACTION - arrange furniture for both whole group & small group; good traffic flow
2. PROVIDE A LANGUAGE RICH ENVIRONMENT - display & use a variety of print materials in both primary language & English
3. OFFER STIMULI FOR CONVERSATIONS - display content related info. (diagrams, graphic organizers, cultural are...); Use educational technology & multimedia
What are 4 way to organize a classroom for ASSISTANCE?
1. PARAPROFESSIONALS - aides can work with small groups, provide individual support/tutoring & assist in primary language instruction
2. VOLUNTEERS - can be older students, former ELs, parents, community members
3. TEAM TEACHING - by subject matter or student proficiency level
4. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY - multimedia, software for ELD, document cameras, active response systems
What are 5 ways to SCAFFOLD for Academic Language Development (i.e SDAIE strategies)
1. MODIFICATION - modify the follow to expand, not simplify: vocab., speed, stress, intonation, paraphrase, repetition & amplification
2. PRIMARY LANGUAGE - teach "cognates" (things that are similar in different languages), use textbooks in L1 & peer support
3. PRIOR KNOWLEDGE - KWL, anticipation, guide, discussion/brainstorm
4. CONTEXTUALIZATION - put language in an understandable context by using realia & visual support
5. ASSESSMENT - use Formative (before work, Summative (after work) & Re-teach if needed
The goal is to be in QUADRANT B--increasingly Cognitively Demanding & Context Embedded with many clues
What are 3 important elements of CHECKING FOR UNDERSTANDING?
1. Mnitor comprehension FREQUENTLY--use equity sticks, ask non-volunteers, have kids write answers on white boards
2. Check for DIFFERENT LEVELS of comprehension--Literal (who?, what?, when?, where?), Inferential & Evaluative (why?, should, could, would)
3. Effective QUESTIONING TECHNIQUES--wait 7 secs. for ELs to give answer; fram questions appropriately, ask different types of questions
Give a name to the strategy, model the strategy out loud, explain how the strategy will help students and when & how it can be used

(e.g. "Using Images" strategy: draw a picture to help understand a problem by visualizing & understanding the problem)
What is the problem with how people are referenced in the California Framework?
The framework is dominated by WHITE MALES even though 84% of students in California are Latino; thus, it is impt. for teacher to be aware of "cultural diversity" and to supplement Framework!
What are 4 types of ANALYSES to determine whether or not teaching materials are biased (e.g. against races, gender, social-class)?
1. PICTURE ANALYSIS - Use for texts that picture American People
2. "PEOPLE TO STUDY" ANALYSIS - use for Science & History texts
3. ANTHOLOGY ANALYSIS - Use for elementary readers, literature texts, etc.
4. STORYLINE ANALYSIS - Use for history texts, long stories in liteterature books & novels
What are some ways to MODIFY MATERIALS to meet the cognitive, linguistic, cultural & academic needs of ELs?
Use graphic organizers, change the modality from written to ORAL, tape record selected passages, copy & highlight portions of texts, etc.
What 3 things should a teacher consider when selecting BASIC & SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIALS?
1. The LANGUAGE Used (e.g sexist, stereotypes...)
2. COMPLEXITY of the Language
3. Depiction of ETHNICITIES & GENDERS (Use ANAYSES--Storyline, Anthology, People to Study & Picture)
1. NATURAL APPROACH - e.g teach English ALL in English
2. TPR - "Total Physical Approach"
3. CALLA - "Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach"
"Krashen's Monitor Model;" e.g teach English ALL in English;" goal is for students to undertand the ideas, but not the specifics of language; use for EL levels 1 & 2
Describe the ELD "TPR APPROACH"
"Total Physical Response;" Based on idea that language is learned through association with BODY MOVEMENT (e.g. "Head, Shoulders, Knees & Toes); goal is for students to learn receptive, then expressive language; use for EL levels 1 & 2
Describe the ELD "CALLA APPROACH."
"Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach;" Explicit teaching of LEARNING STRATEGIES within subject area; students learn to plan, monitor & evaluate their learning processes while furthering their ability to comprehend language & discourse of different subject areas; use for EL leves 3, 4 & 5
What is the purpose of STRUCTURED INTERACTIONS for ELs and what are some Strategies (Oral & Written)?
Structure Interactions can help ELs maximize language output if they are meaningful & purposeful; help ELs negotiate meaning in a supportive context during ELD & Content instruction; Use DYNAMIC GROUPING

ORAL STRATEGIES: "Numbered Heads Together" (you're #1,2,3...); "Think, Pair, Share;" "Tea Party" (each person has a piece of the info. & they have to find the person who has the related piece)

WRITTEN STRATEGIES: "Write Around;" "Cooperative Paragraph Strips" (put paragraphs in order)
Explicit - teachable moment to explain clarify a language structure or word meaning
Implicit - moveling, providing feedback, using correct syntactical structure

Explicit - guised by ELD stds.
Implicit - interactive journal (writing); SSR (reading)
BEG. - begin to speak a few words or sentences using Enlish phonemes & rudimentary grammar
EARLY INT. - Begin to be understood when speaking, but inconsistent use of grammar & sounds
INT. - Make onself understood when speaking by using some consistent std. grammar
EARLY ADV. - Make oneself understood when speaking using consistent grammatical forms, sounds, intonation, pitch & modulations, but may make random errors
ADV. - Speak clearly & comprehensibly using std. English grammatical forms, sounds, intonations, pitch & modulation
What are some strategies to develop LISTENING & SPEAKING skills (Comprehension, Organization & Delivery of Oral Communication, and Analysis & Evaluation)?
COMPREHENSION: Explicity tell students what they are listening for (e.g. main ideas, details, implied meaning...); listen to stories & info. & respond appropriately verbally & nonverbally; apply knowledge of vocab., idiomatic expressions, discourse markers, org. & tone
ORGANIZATION & DELIVERY OF COMMUNICATION: provide multiple opportunities to listen & reponds appropriately in different contexts; make oneself understood when speaking using std. English grammatical forms, sounds, intonation, pitch & modulation; varying speech; retelling stories & conversations; delivering oral presentations; restating ideas from oral presentations...
ANALYSIS & EVALUATION - responding orally to questions; identifying types of media
What are some ELD strategies that promote LISTENING & SPEAKING across the curriculum?
Frontloading key vocabulary & language functions; Pre-teaching; brainstorming questions prior to presentation; cooperative learning; whole-class & small group discussions, role-plays, interviews & debriefing
What are some ELD strategies that promote READING in the areas of Word Analysis, Fluency, Systematicic Vocabulary Development, Reading Comprehension & Literary Response & Analysis?
WORD ANALYSIS - concepts about print; phonemic & morphemic awarenes; vocab & concept deveopment; decoding; word & cognate recognition
FLUENCY - read aloud with appropriate pacing, intonation & expression; apply word recognition skills
SYSTEMATIC VOCABULARY DEVELOPMENT - word recognition skills; use dictionary; recognize multiple-meanding & common abbreviations; use morphems & context to understand unknown words
READING COMPREHENSION - identify cause & effect and fact & opinion; use text to draw conclusions & make inferences; describe relation bet. text & one's own experience
LITERARY RESPONSE & ANALYSIS - narrative analysis of grade-level appropriate texts; structural feature of literature; literary criticism
What are some ELD strategies to develop skills that promote WRITING?
WRITING STRATEGIES & APPLICATION (penmanship development; the writing process includes organization, focus, evaluation & revision; apply research & technology)


ENGLISH LANGUAGE CONVENTIONS (capitalization, punctuation, sentence structure, grammar & spelling)
What are 6 of the 11 SCAFFOLDING STRATEGIES for SDAIE? (continued)
1. ACCESS PRIOR KNOWLEDGE - anticipator charts/guides, brainstorming, inquirly charts, quickwrites, think-pair-share
2. CONTEXTUALIZATION - use manipulatives, videos, verbal clues, parphrasing,visuals, graphic organizers...
3. MODELING - demonstrate learning task; provide clear model of expected outcomes
4. METACOGNITIVE & COGNITIVE STRATEGIES - Debriefing (logs/journals), self-evaluation & reflection, think alouds...
5. ACADEMIC LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS - Front load vocab.; explicitly teach language functions critical to content area
6. TEXT TRANSFORMATION - change text from 1 genre to another (e.g story into a play)
7. COMMUNICATION - Use a variety of grouping configurations, including primary language; ex: jigsaws, numbered-heads together, team tasks...
8. ASSESSMENTS - anecdotal records, teacher observations, quickwrites, interviews, projects, presentations, drawings & traditional assessments w/ modifications
10. MODIFY/AUGMENT TEXTBOOKS - focus on key concepts; use chapter summary b4 reading; use primary lang. resources
11. ANALYZING/INTERPRETING TEXT - Use higher levels of Bloom's taxonomy questions (e.g. Why do you think...? How could you justify...?)
What are 6 key components of SDAIE?
1. Tap into Prior Knowledge
2. Contextualize the lesson
3. Provide a Positive Affective Domain
4. Teach Study Skills
5. Modify the use of the textbook
6. Use Performance Assessment Tasks that assess student progress towards the standards
TAPPING INTO PRIOR KNOWLEDGE is a key component of SDAIE. What are some methods for doing this?
INQUIRY CHARTS - K-W-L chart, direct questioning, pictoral representations & small group discussions

SUPPLY NEEDED BACKGROUND INFO. - the more a student knows about a subject, the easier it is to learn new info.; train bilingual students, parents & community members to assist ELs; Have texts in a variety of languages & various readability levels in class; Use Preview-Review & Pre-teach related key words

PERSONALIZE THE LESSON - Use students' names, familiar characters & places; Use analogies; infuse Multicuturalism whenever possible
CONTEXTUALIZING THE LESSON is a key component of SDAIE. What are some ways to do this?
1. Present new concepts in CONCRETE, VISUAL ways (e.g. role-play, peer discussions, experiements, graphic organizers)
2. Use COGNATES when possible (words that are similar in 2 or more language AND have the same meaning
3. Teach vocabulary in CONTEXT & use REPETITION that doesn't feel repetitive
4. Let students choose method that works best for them (e.g. draw pictures of vocab., write meaning in native language...)
PROVIDING A POSITIVE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN is a key component of SDAIE. What are some ways to do this?
A POSITIVE AFFECTIVE DOMAIN is one that has a LOW AFFECTIVE FILTER (i.e. an environment that is accepting, encouraging & has low anxiety). This can be accomplished by focusing on the content of the students' message rather than on the form; provide "wait time" b4 asking a students questions by having them 1st discuss it with a peer or group; provide frequent student-student interaction; fill classroom with primary language materials to help students access info. & validate culture; use cross-age or peer tutors
TEACHING STUDY SKILLS is a key component of SDAIE. What are some ways to do this?
Teach students how to take notes, organize thoughts, differntiate between main ideas & supporting details, how to identify cause & effect

Use CALLA Approach to explicitly teach learning strategies & to help students figure out which ones work best for them

Use GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS to help students learn English's linear discourse

Use SCAFFOLDING support strategies & then gradually withdraw them

Teach students how to approach a TEXTBOOK (e.g titles, chapter headings, topic sentences, skimming for meaning, Table of Contents, Glossary...)
MODIFY THE USE OF THE TEXTBOOK is a key component of SDAIE. What are some ways to do this?
Before students read from textbook: determine students' background knowledge & supply missing info.; teach main concepts using visuals, manipulatives, realia, etc.; use outside sources as needed; & give students a chapter summary

Reading activities include: teacher reading aloud critical excerpts; rephrasing & phrasing

Teacher directed PRE-READING activities are crucial to to student success during independent reading!

Students can read in pairs, groups, in response to the teacher or along with the teacher
Using PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT TASKS that assess student progress towards the standards is a key component of SDAIE. What are some of the ways to do this?
Traditional tests are not appropriate for ELs bec. they require lots of reading and/or writing. Therefore, EL tests need to include MULTIPLE MEASURES of Student Performance that are inclusive of various learning styles. Here are some assessment practices:
AUTHENTIC ASSESSMENT - draw tasks from instructional context of classroom
DYNAMIC ASSESSMENT - focus on both the processes & products of learning
STANDARDS BASED ASSESSMENTS - acheivement is measured against benchmarks tied to stds.
MULTIPLE ASSESSMENTS - Use a variety of sources on multiple occassions
The process of providing students with some STRUCTURE that will help them as they work on a performance task.

Ex: providing students w/ blank lines to write answer; underlining key words; providing pictures, diagrams or story maps; indicating reference materials to use; providing background info. or context; giving hints; providing a checklist...

As students develop more autonomous learning strategies, it is important to slowly TAKE DOWN the scaffolds!
What is SIOP?
"Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol;" A checklist for peers to evaluate each other's SDAIE program in the areas of: (1) PREPARATION (e.g. clearly defined content AND language objectives; supplementary materials; adaptation of content; meaningful activities); (2) INSTRUCTION (e.g. Bulding Background, Comprehensible Input, Ample strategies; Interaction & Practice/Application); (3)REVIEW/ASSESSMENT
What is the SDAIE Lesson Plan Format?
CONTENT STANDARD(s) - Calif. content std.
ELD STANDARD(S) or LANGUAGE OBJECTIVES - based on EL proficieny level & linguistic demands of lesson
ASSESSMENT - how will you know students have met stds./objectives
(1) INTO - Find out what students already know & provide experiences to link prior knowledge w/ lesson
(2) THROUGH - Contextualize content; scaffold input for comprehensibility; group students for optimum interaction...
(3) BEYOND - Students relate new knowledge to their own lives; they deveop new questions, creations, extensions; use "Metacognitive Strategies" to reflect on the learning process
What are 3 things that EL parents MUST be notified of?
1. Thier child's language assessment & academic assessment results

2. Placement in a Structured English Immersion classroom

3. The opportunite to apply for a parental exception waiver to place child in "alternate" program
What are the criterion for resdesignating a an EL student as FEP?
1. TEACHER EVALUATION of student's Enlish language proficiency
2. CELDT score
3. PARENTAL opinion or consultation
4. OBJECTIVE DATA based on content standards tests
5. OTHER adopted critera
1. TIME - timed tests are stressful
2. LINGUISTIC BIAS - test is designed to be used with a different language group
3. CULTURAL BIAS - the values represented in the test differ
4. TEXT ANXIETY - compounded when test is alien to cultural background & test format may be unfamiliar
5. RAPPORT BETWEEN TESTER & TEST TAKER - person giving test may be unfamiliar
6. EQUIVALENT ENGLISH & OTHER LANGUAGE VERSIONS - when a test is translated, there may be a lack of correspondence & scoring may differ
What are the ELD Standards?
The pathway to the ELA stds.;
establish clear expectations for ELs; bases on PROFICIENCY levels & GRADE-LEVEL spans in listening/speaking, reading & writing; ELD stds. are aligned w/ CELDT
STANDARDS inform ASSESSMENT--> Assessment informs INSTRUCTIONAL PRACTICES--> Students engage in LEARNING what they need to know & be able to do--> Students DEMONSTRATE whate they know & can do--> Either students experience LEARNING & transition to the next lesson OR if they do NOT experience success, the teacher RETEACHES & modifies instruction bases on ASSESSMENT results
What are the 4 steps in DESIGNING an Assessment task?
1. Select Standard(s) - Content & ELD
2. Dsign SUMMATIVE Assessment Task
3. Design INTRUCTIONAL activities -provide many different opportunities including formative assessments
4. TEACHER ASSESSMENT of student work & needs (if not sufficient, then return to step #3)
What are some indications that an EL student may need EARLY INTERVENTION for learning difficulties?
Background experience & previous school settings; response to classroom environment; level of acculturation; learning styles; physical needs

If there is a chronic problem and if function is significantly below classmates, then may need to refer to Special Ed.
What are some of the 6 ACADEMIC & LEARNING problems that EL students may experience?
1. Discrepancies bet. verbal & nonveral learning
2. Perceptual disorders
3. Metacognitive deficits
4. Memory difficulties
5. Motor disorders
6. Social-emotional functioning
1. Pragmatics
2. Prosody
3. Phonology
4. Syntax
5. Smantics
What is meant by "Underachievement of ELs?"
All ethinic groups score lower than Whites, except for all Asian-Americans

There is a growing "achievement gap" bet. EOs & ELs!

It is unclear as to what extent English Proficiency is linked to underachievement
What is meant by "Overachievement of ELs?"
Asian Americans are referred to as the "Model Minority" & this can lead to them being OVER-QUALIFIED for jobs; also this "Whiz Kid" image can mask indiviual needs & problems

High Achievement of Asian Americans may be due to TEACHER EXPECTATIONS which leads to a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

Some subgroups resist assimilation
What are the issues of DROP-OUTS, RETENTION & TRACKING?
DROPOUTS - "Hispanic Dropout Project" found a tendency for teachers to blame students & their familiies OR to make excuses such as low socioeconomic status & lack of English proficiendy; Educators need to provide high quality curriculum & instructions, know about the students & their families, & receive high-quality professional development

RETENTION - 10% of ELs are retained; students who repeat at least 1 grade are more likely to drop-out of school

TRACKING - education gaps continue bec. of this