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108 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
design & construction in 2 phases
architect hired to make documents to coordinate construction called "legal tender"
legal tender
construction coordination documents purchased by the owner as part of a contract--> binds architect to terms
design build
for simpler projects, owner seeks both design and construction from one source
construction manager
coordinates/oversees all aspects of project-hiring architect, consultants and builders
Fast track
construction begins before design is finished
cradle to grave
something is reprocessed/repurposed instead of going to a landfill
embodied energy
the amount of energy used to produce the product (mining, digging, creating, transporting)

steel is most ______ bc it uses tons of water and electricity
leadership in energy and environmental design
sustainability checklist
Net zero energy
produce more/equal energy than it uses
occupancy group
assembly (theater, church, terminal, clubs, restaurants, lecture halls)
occupancy group
occupancy group
occupancy group
F (1,2)
factory/ industrial (moderate and low)
occupancy group
H (1-5)
hazardous (detonation,deflagration,physical health)
occupancy group
I (1-4)
Institutional (residential, incapacitated, restrained)
occupancy group
occupancy group
R (1-4)
residential (hotels, multi-family, 1+2 family & multiple single family)
occupancy group
S (1,2)
storage (moderate and low)
occupancy group
occupancy groups
use of building
construction type
determined by the International Build Code (IBC)

depends on fire resistance in hrs of specific components of construction assembly that provide structure & fire separation
construction type
Type 1 (A+B)
non combustible/protected
-concrete, masonry, fire protected steel
most fire resistant
construction type
Type 2 (A+B)
non combustible, protected/unprotected
-combos of steel,concrete precast, masonry
less fire resistant bc structural parts
construction type
Type 4 (A+B)
combustible/non combustible
heavy timber as main structure
construction type
Type 3(A+B)
combustible/non combustible
combos of wood, steel, masonry, pre cast
construction type
Type 5 (A+B)
combustible protected/unprotected
light wood frame
least resistant
Fire resistance rating
measured in hours, how long it takes for building to fail
Americans with Disabilities Act
Occupational Safety & Health Act
workers rules & regulations for job sites
American Society for Testing and Materials
Canadian Standards Association
American National Standards Institute
Construction Specification Institute (produces master format spec)
ASTM & masterformat
Shop drawings
produced by fabricators
detailed with dimensions
Building constraints
availability of land, availability of workforce, environmental conditions, infrastructure, climate, available technologies, soil conditions, structural spans, availability of materials, laws, BC & regulations
what can be built where
protects the quality of life (no schools next to factories) and controls density
Zoning Ordinances
types of building uses/activities, area of building, setbacks from property lines, # parking spots, total Floor Area permissible (FAR), building height, non combustible construction
Building code intent
protect public health and safety by setting a minimum standard of construction quality
early means of fire protection
clay tiles, concrete, plaster over structural assemblies
What are 3 requirements for a successful foundation?
1-The foundation & underling rock/soil must be safe against a structural failure 2-foundation must not settle such a way to damage structure of building 3- foundation must be feasible economically & technically & should not cause damage to surrounding structures
Differential settlement
worst settlement
differential forces exerted on structure which can result failure (zigzag)
Uniform settlement
even around the building is designed for, wherein the building settles evenly
dead loads
weight of the frame, floor, walls, ceilings, materials, electrical & mechanical equipment and foundation
live loads
people, furnishing, equipment, snow, ice, roof water
wind loads
cause lateral downward & uplift forces upon a structure
soil type
continuous mass of solid mineral matter such as granite or limestone which must be drilled or blasted
strongest & most stable material to place building on
soil types
any sub ground material that is in the form of:
boulders, cobbles, gravel, sand, silt or clay
soils are never homogeneous
soil testing
samples taken to represent condition of site
test for bearing compacity, permeability & liquid plastic limits
digging-shallow, boring-deep
strength of soils in order from strongest to weakest
bedrock, gravel, sand, clay, silt, organic material
soil report
given to arch/engineer--> foundations are then designed according to estimated total load of requirements of building
excavation shoring
site is prepared and made safe for permanent construction of foundations
temporary/permanent structure needed to hold earth
excavation sheeting
provides a safe work zone for foundation construction using some kind of brace
bracing- crosslot
beams go across entire excavated area (like grid)
bracing- rakers
angled beams put in to hold back earth
bracing- tie backs
most preferable because of mobility and site access
technique of bracing sheeting systems against soil and water pressure
Soldier beams
vertical posts for excavating
horizontal boards for excavating
sheet piling
material driven into earth by force, creates continuous wall of interlocking segments
soil is excavated after piling driven into place
temporary or permanent
slurry wall
permanent excavation system
"clamshell" bucket follows concrete guide to dig trench, trench is dug to required depth through slurry (this retains earth), reinforcing steel lowered into trench, concrete pumped in slurry pumped out, after concrete cured, earth excavated and tiebacks are drilled
keep excavation sites dry when excavation is carried out below the water table
What is the liquid limit of a soil?
the water content at which the soil passes from a liquid state
What is the plastic limit of a soil?
the water content at which the soil loses its plasticity and begins to behave as a solid
part of the building that rests on the foundation
(below ground)
above ground portion of building
shallow foundations
transfers load to the earth at the base of the column or wall of the substructure
deep foundation
penetrate through layers of upper "incompetent" soil in order to transfer loads to competent bearing soil/bedrock below
spreads the load of a structural wall or column into the ground
a thin footing that distributes smaller loads to the perimeter
drilled, deep foundation
permanent supports
driven, deep foundation
create pressure bulbs in unstable soil--> pile fields
way to repair foundation, very expensive
add extra supports to existing foundation
after you excavate to build a structure, go back and fill in holes around the foundation
concrete make up
aggregates (gravel/crushed stone, sand), portland cement, clean water, admixtures (performance enhancing ingredients)
portland cement
clinker mixed with gypsum to retard curing and ground up again
limestone, clay/shale and other raw materials ground up, proportioned, blended (wet or dry) and burned
3/4 concrete mixture, small/light pieces of mixed minerals like shale
setting and hardening of concrete by hydration
chemical reaction referring to what happens when water meets concrete
~28 days, must be kept moist during curing
4 rules for making high quality concrete?
1 use clean, sound, properly sized ingredients, 2 mix ingredients in proper proportions, handle wet concrete properly to avoid segregating, cure concrete under controlled conditions
what is the compressive strength of concrete needed for shallow foundations?
as low as 2000psi
what is the compressive strength of concrete needed for columns needed in high rise building?
as high as 22000 psi
How does the water/cement ratio affect the strength and surface quality of the concrete that is produced?
More water than concrete is needed for the curing, need concrete mix to flow through pumps,
the less water the denser and stronger the concrete will be
air entraining
bubbles in concrete makes it easier/lighter to work with
performance enhancing chemicals or controlling ingredients
slump test
test concrete consistency, concrete put in mold, flipped upside down and allowed to fall under its own weight, distance moves is measured
W-C ratio
strength of concrete is dependent on cement to water ratio
forms used for shaping concrete, must be strong enough to support weight of wet concrete and itself
made of wood,metal or plastic, holds reinforcing bars in place
formwork ties
bind the formwork securely together and provide strength to resist the weight and pressure of the concrete when poured
reinforcing bars
come in diameter sizes at 1/8", made of steel,
place the steel in the concrete where there are tensile forces
carry diagonal tension
post tensioning
done on site
pre tensioning
done off site
mild arc
one way system
only 2 lines of parallel support and a single load path in one direction (column lines or walls) (ex. ribbed, solid slab with bands, skip joist)
two way system
involves support working in 2 directions and load traveling in 2 directions (ex. waffle, solid slab, drop panels, flat plate)
ribbed slab
thick beam in center (at column line) and ribs coming off it
repetitive steel pans (1 way)
waffle slab
joisted system with column head
mushroom column
2 way system, column with flat slab at top
slab band
thick, flat bands
slab on grade
footings needed by little or no foundation is poured
flying formwork
sections of floor are poured using formwork mounted to large steel trusses, reused for each floor
tilt up construction
cast on ground then raised up into position (usually used for 2 story structures)
excavation prevent soil from caving during digging
pile caps
used for repair/improvement of existing foundation
transfer loads from building to piles
well points
pump water out
water tight barriers
permanent water proofing
prestressing concrete
(pretension and post tension) reduce compressive forces and increase tensile forces