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54 Cards in this Set

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Clubbing
angle between the nail plate and the prox nail fold should be approximately 160°. If the angle approaches or exceeds 180° and the distal finger appears thickened and enlarged, then clubbing is present.
-assoc. with respiratory and cardiovascular disease.
Lindsay's nails
Proximal half white, distal half pink.
-assoc. with renal disease.
Terry nails
White except for a narrow zone at the distal tip.
-assoc. with cirrhosis and hypoalbuminemia.
Mee's lines
Transeverse white lines across the nail
-assoc. w/ acte illness or heavy metal poisoning
Beau's lines
Transverse depression where stress or illness temporarily interrupts nail growth
Nail pitting
psoriasis
Tic habit
sharp horizontal grooves extend to the tip of the nail
Spoon nail (koilonychia)
central depression of nail w/ lateral elevation of the nail plate producing spon-like appearance.
-assoc. w/ iron deficiency anemia, syphilis, hypothyroidism
Tinea unguium
dermatophyte fungal infection
Black or dark pigmented bands in nail
-A single black nail that suddenly appears and is painless, must consider MELANOMA (very abnormal in caucasians
-If associated with trauma history and pain, consider subungal hematoma
-Painless green-black discoloration, consider Pseudomonas infection.
-
primary lesions
arise from normal skin
macule
flat; circumscribed area of change <1cm
-freckles
patch
flat; circumscribed area of change >1cm
-vitiligo, cafe au lait
papule
raised, firmed; <1cm
-warts
nodule
raised, firm; 1-2cm
-lipoma
tumor
raised, firm; >2cm
plaque
raised, firm w/ flat topped surface; >1cm
-large area/height ratio
-psoriasis
wheal
raised, solid, transient, irregular-shaped area of cutaneous edema with variable diameter
-mesquito bite
vesicle
raised, circumscribed, superficial, filled with serous fluid; <1cm
-chickenpox
bulla
Vesicle >1cm diameter, superficial
-blister
pustule
raised, superficial, filled with purulent fluid; <1cm
-zit
cyst
raised, circumscribed, well-encapsulated in dermis or subcutaneous layer, filled with liquid or semi- solid material
abscess
accumulation of purulent material in the dermis or subcutaneous layer surrounded by inflamed tissues
comedo
A plug of sebum and keratin in the opening of a hair follicle
-Blackhead- comedo with a dilated follicle opening
-Whitehead- comedo with a closed follicle opening
furuncle
Acute localized staphylococcal infection. Starts as perifollicular abscess which spreads to surrounding tissue producing a pustule with surrounding inflammation.
carbuncle
a coalescence of several furuncles
secondary lesion
generally arise from primary lesions
erosion
loss of epidermis; depressed, moist, glistening; caused by rupture of vesicle or bulla
ulcer
Loss of epidermis and dermis; concave shape
fissure
A linear crack from epidermis to the dermis
-athlete's foot
excoriation
trauma causes loss of epidermis; linear, hollowed out area
-abrasion or scratch
scaling
Shedding of S.corneum leaves layers of keratinized cells; flaky skin, irregular borders, thick or thin, dry or oily
crusting
Dried serum, pus, or blood on the skin; slightly elevated; size and color vary
-scab on abrasion
lichenification
thickening and roughening of epidermis secondary to rubbing itching or skin irritation
scaring
replacement of normal tissue with fibrous connective tissue following injury to the dermis
keloid
Irregularly shaped, progressively enlarging, hypertrophied scar that grows beyond the boundaries of the wound
sclerosis
Diffuse or circumscribed hardening of the skin
atrophy
Thinning of the epidermis and loss of skin markings; skin may appear translucent and paper-like
dscoid
disc shaped without central clearing
annular
ring shaped; round active margins with central clearing
-Erythematous border surrounding a cleared area of lighter skin- associated with Tinea (fungus)
arcuate
partial rings
reticulated
lace like
serpiginous
snake like
iris
circle within a circle
erythema
blanchable; pink or red discoloration due to dilated blood vessels
spider hemangioma
blanchable; red central body with radiating spiderlike legs; arterial origin. Caused by liver disease, vitamin B deficiency, or idiopathic.
telangiectasia
blanchable; fine, irregular red lines due to dilation of venules. When blanched refill erratically
capillary hemangioma (nervus flammeus)
blanchable; red, irregular, macular or patches caused by dilation of dermal capillaries.
petechiae
non-blanchable; red-purple, <0.5cm
-intravascular defects
purpura
non-blanchable; red-purple >0.5cm
-intravascular defects
ecchymosis (bruise)
non-blanchable; red-purple lesion of various size due to vascular destruction or vasculitis
venous stars
non-blanchable; bluish spider, linear or irregularly shaped
-increasesed pressure in superficial veins
dysplastic moles
-color mixture
-irregular borders
-scaly or pebbly appearance
->6mm
ABCDE rule
Melanoma Dx criteria:
-asymmetry
-borders irregular
-color not uniform
-diameter >6mm
-evolves over time