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78 Cards in this Set

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1.List the three types of evidence that support plate tectonics.
1.Fit of the continents
2. Location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and midocean ridges
3. Distribution of fossils, rock types and ancient climatic zones.
2.What are the 3 primary layers of the Earth?
1.The cold, brittle lithosphere
2. A hot, convecting mantle
3. A dense, metallic core
3.How large and how fast do lithospheric plates move and why do they move?
Lithosphere plates move cm/year in response to the movements in the mantle.
4.Earthquakes
Sudden motions along breaks in the crusts called faults
5. Volcanoes and fissures
Locations where magma reaches the surface
6. What 3 geological features do plate motions cause? and list a geological representation in California.
1. Mountains – Sierra Nevada Mountain Range
2. Faults – San Andreas Fault
3. Volcanoes – Mount Shasta
7.Describe how scientists determine the epicenter of an earthquake.
By triangulating info from three separate seismographs that determine the strength and focus of the quake.
8. What 4 factors determine the severity of an earthquake?
1. the size of the quake
2. the distance from the epicenter
3. the local geology
4. the type of construction
9. What two creatures habitats’ are mostly affected by earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides and floods?
1. humans
2. wildlife
10. What is rock composed of?
Different combinations of minerals
11. What four “natural” things provide many resources, including food, fuel, and building materials, that humans use?
1. rocks
2. water
3. plants
4. soil
12. What two things do fossils provide to the scientific community?
1. Evidence about plants and animals from long ago
2. The past history of Earth.
13. What is soil made of?
Weathered rock and organic materials
14. List 4 ways that soils differ:
1. color
2. texture
3. capacity to retain water
4. ability to support the growth of many kinds of plants.
15. What are the 3 types of rocks, and how are they formed?
Igneous – Rock formed when molten magma cools and solidifies.
Sedimentary- Rocks that form when fragments of rocks and other debris are cemented together.
Metamorphic – Rocks that form when a rock is chemically changed by heat or pressure to form a new rock.
16. What is the rock cycle?
The Earth’s crust is made of recycled rocks. These are formed by external factors, such as heat, pressure, and weathering. These factors are continually breaking up and rebuilding sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rocks ina process known as the rock cycle.
1.erosion
The wearing away of the Earth’s surface due to the effects of weather, water, or ice.
2.landslides
The downward sliding of a relatively dry mass of earth and rock.
3. volcanic eruptions
An violent outburst through an opening in the earth's crust through which molten lava, ash, and gases are ejected.
4. earthquakes
A sudden movement of the earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along geologic faults or by volcanic activity.
5. What are 3 reasons that rocks break into smaller pieces?
Freezing
Thawing
Growth of plant roots
6. Water erodes landforms, reshaping the land by taking it away from some places and depositing it as pebbles, sand, silt, and mud in other places. What are the 3 words that describe these processes?
weathering, transport and deposition
7. What reshapes the topography of an area?
the weathering of rock and soil and by the transportation and deposition of sediment
8. What is the dominant process in shaping the landscape of California?
water running downhill
9. Rivers and streams are dynamic systems that do what 4 things in natural and recurring patterns?
erode, transport sediment, change course, and flood their banks
10. Where do beaches receive their sand from and how do waves affect/change them?
The sand is supplied by rivers and moved along the coast by the action of waves.
11. How does energy enter an ecosystem and in what two ways is it transferred?
Energy enters ecosystems as sunlight and is transferred 1) by producers into chemical energy through photosynthesis and 2) from organism to organism through food webs.
12. How is matter transferred?
It is transferred from one organism to another over time, in the food web and between organisms and the physical environment.
13. How do we categorize organisms?
Populations of organisms can be categorized by the functions they serve in an ecosystem.
14. What determines the number and types of organisms an ecosystem can support?
The resources available and on abiotic factors, such as quantities of light and water, a range of temps and soil composition.
15. What determines how useful an energy source is?
The factors involved in converting the energy into a useful form, and the consequences of the conversion process.
16. Renewable Energy
is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are naturally replenished.
17. Non Renewable Energy
those sources which can't be replaced in a reasonable amount of time.
18. What is the major source of energy on the Earth’s surface and what does it power?
The sun and it powers winds, ocean currents, and the water cycle.
19. How does solar energy reach the Earth and in what form?
Through radiation and in the form of visible light.
20. How does heat from the Earth’s interior reach the surface?
Through convection.
21. How is heat distributed on Earth and through what process?
Through convection currents in the atmosphere and oceans.
22. What causes changes of weather here on Earth?
Differences in pressure, heat, air movement and humidity
1. What do you call a substance that keeps its size and shape?
A solid
2. What do you call a substance that takes the shape of it’s container, flows freely, and is neither a solid or a gas?
A liquid
3. What do you call a fluid (as air) that has neither independent shape nor volume but tends to expand indefinitely?
A gas
4. If you heat a solid, what happens?
The particles begin to vibrate more and more until they can break free of fixed positions and move freely over each other. This is called melting.
5. At what temperature does a substance melt into a liquid?
It’s melting point.
6. If you heat a liquid, what happens?
The particles in a liquid move faster and get enough energy to escape and form a gas. This is called vaporization.
7.At what temperature do all liquid particles move to a gas?
It’s boiling point.
8. What are the two types of vaporization?
boiling and evaporation
9. If you cool down a gas, what happens?
Cool temperatures remove energy from a gas, causing it to condense, or turn back into a liquid.
10. If you cool down a liquid, what happens?
When liquid particles slow down enough, they get locked into position again and become a solid. This is called freezing (or solidification.)
11. What is sublimation?
When a solid substance turns directly into a gas, skipping the liquid phase.
1. Energy comes from the Sun to the Earth in the form of…
Light
2. Sources of stored energy take many forms, such as…
Food, fuel and batteries
3. Machines and living things convert stored energy to…
Motion and heat
4. Energy can be carried from one place to another by …
Waves (water and sound)Electric current Moving objects
5. When two or more substances are combined…
A new substance may be formed with properties different from that of the original.
6. All matter is made up of tiny particles to small to see, called…
Atoms
7. People once thought that these were the basic elements of all matter…
Earth, wind, fire and water
8. This represents the more than 100 types of elements from which all matter is made…
The periodic table
9. In a chemical reaction atoms in the reactants rearrange to form products with…
Different properties.
10. All matter is made of atoms, which may combine to form…
Molecules.
11. Metals have similar properties such as…
High electrical and thermal conductivity.
12. Some metals, such as aluminum, iron, nickel, copper, silver and gold are
Pure elements.
13. Some metals, such as steel and brass, are composed of a combination of elements (elemental metals), called…
alloys.
14. Elements are made up of one kind of atom and the elements are organized in the periodic table based on their…
Chemical properties.
15. Differences in chemical and physical properties of substances are used to…
Separate mixtures and identify compounds.
16. Living organisms and most materials are composed of just a few elements…
CHNOPS (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur)
1. What are the similarities between plants and animals?
Both require water to survive, both have a vascular (circulate fluid) system, both have cellular respiration (capturing energy from food) in the mitochondria, mitosis and meiosis (process by which cells get ready to participate in reproduction.)
2. What are the differences between plants and animals?
Plants have sexual and asexual reproduction, animals only sexual. Plants have cell walls, chloroplasts for photosynthesis and cell vacuoles. Plants need CO2, minerals, water and light. Animals survive by eating other organisms. Plants hold themselves up with cell walls, animals have a skeletal structure. Plants excrete O2, animals excrete CO2.
3. What are common major structures of plants?
stems, leaves, buds, roots, flowers, fruit, seeds
4. What are common major structures of animals?
arms, wings, legs, systems, organs
5. What are the different kinds of environments inhabited by plants and animals?
Tundra, mountains, seashores, oceans, rivers and lakes, wetlands, deserts, grasslands, tropical rain forests, temperate forests
6. What are the external features that help them thrive in different kinds of places.
Tundra – thick, waterproof fur; ability to migrate; layers of fat or blubber

Mountains – features that allow climbing, migration, thick coats of fur, plants grow in dense cushions and have thick, hairy leaves that trap heat and reduce water loss, some animals have large hearts and lungs to get enough oxygen

Seashores – abilities to get , from sea, nest away from predators, ability to survive constantly changing conditions (tides)

Oceans – Two main habitats pelagic (the water) and benthic (the ocean floor), dead plants and animals fall to the ocean floor making it very nutrient rich, large stomachs, sonar, lights, ability to absorb or filter nutrients from the water

Rivers & Lakes – complex old communities, webbed feet, plants provide shelter and food, varying levels of oxygen
Wetlands – fresh or saltwater, produce more plant materials than other ecosystems (breathing pores in their roots), birds nest there due to fewer enemies, water levels change with seasons, some fish have gills, some can breathe air, many have the ability to move across the surface of water

Deserts – plants have deep, wide-spreading roots, touch skins, small leaves and special ways of storing water, little dead material to make the soil rich, animals burrow and can store fat in their body which can be broken down to provide energy and water

Grasslands – grass is the start of many food chains because it grows from the bottom and the more it is eaten, the faster it grows, different species of animals eat different parts of the grasslands, lots of herbivores which provide food for the predators, nutrient system is very rich and cycle is endless

Tropical rain forests – more than ½ of all world species live here; wet, warm and bright sunlight provide lush growing environment, water oxygen minerals and nutrients all pass through the trees and into the canopy where they are recycled so quickly that the soil tends to be poor, many animals have adaptations to move between trees quickly, fungi and plants on the forest floor don’t need light

Temperate forests – mild temps, nutrient cycles are slower, and small plants survive because more sunlight reaches the ground, needles on trees mean the tree loses less water, animals and plants nest in empty trees, many animals migrate, hibernate or become less active in winter seasons
7. How can you infer what animals eat from the shapes of their teeth?
Herbivores (plant eaters) have long incisor teeth to cut through tough plant stems, while its molar teeth grind up its food.
Carnivores have long canine teeth that grip its food and sharp carnassials teeth that slice up food so that it can be swallowed.
8. How are roots associated with the intake of water and soil?
Transpiration – water travels upward through a plant’s roots and stems and evaporates into the air from the leaves and flowers; water also carries dissolved minerals

Translocation – transport system that works in other direction carrying nutrients away from leaves into buds, shoots and roots
9. How are green leaves associated with making food from sunlight?
Cells of leave contain chloroplasts (an organelle), which contain chlorophyll and other pigments that trap the energy in sunlight. This trapped energy provides power for a complicated series of chemical reactions. Water molecules are split apart into Hydrogen and oxygen atoms. The hydrogen combines with CO2 molecules to make glucose and O2 is given off as waste product.
10. Organisms reproduce offspring of their own kind and that the offspring resemble their parents and one another.
There are always two parents in sexual reproduction. Each parent makes gametes (sex cells) by a special kind of cell division called meiosis. The male gamete (the sperm) and the female gamete (the egg) are brought together and a new cell is formed. This is fertilization. From this fertilized cell, a whole new organism develops. Sexual reproduction is more complicated than asexual reproduction, but it has an important advantage. Instead of being the same as one of their parents, sexually produced offspring are unique. They have a unique combination of genes, so that they have a completely new mixture of characteristics. This means that some of them may be better prepared in the struggle to survive.

Male and female sex cells have a single set of DNA molecules each. A fertilized cell has a double set of DNA molecules, one provided by the mother and one from the father. Each DNA molecule forms a threadlike structure or chromosome. There are two copies of each chromosome, one from the father and mother. The DNA molecule is in the shape of a double helix, linked by chemical bases. There are four kinds and their sequence determines the cell’s genetic code. DNA works by telling a cell how to make the many different proteins that your body needs to work. To do this, the DNA is temporarily “unzipped” so that its code can be copied. The copy moves out of the nucleus of the cell where it instructs the cell to assemble a particular protein.
11. Sequential stages of life cycles are different for different animals, such as butterflies, frogs, and mice.
http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/encanto/justwingingit/lifecycle.htm
http://www.kidzone.ws/lw/frogs/facts3.htm
12. Why is there variation among individuals of one kind within a population.
Each sexually reproduced plant or animal has its own unique DNA which gives it a distinctive set of characteristics. Tiny variations are important, because they mean a species evolves or changes with time. Some DNA variations are more successful than others, so as one generation succeeds another, their more successful genes become more common.
13. What can affect the germination, growth, and development of plants?
Light, gravity, touch, or environmental stress