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60 Cards in this Set

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What is the study of sound called?
Acoustics
Sound has no mass or weight, but is rather an audible disturbance in a medium caused by a _______ source such as a tuning fork or the vocal folds
Vibrating
A _____ _____ can exist in a gas, such as air: in a liguid, such as water, or a solid, such as a pipe or rail road track
sound wave
The simplest sounds; consist of only one frequency: repeats itself in the exact same way at a constant # of cycles
pure tones
the number of cycles per second
frequency
____ is the restoring force that causes a medium to bounce back when stretched or displaced
Elasticity
the tendency for motion or lack or motion to continue
inertia
starting at rest and moving to max point of displacement (MPD) to one side then to MPD on other and back to rest.. this is called one____ of vibration
cycle
_____ is the speed of an object in a certain direction. max ____ is reached as it passes original resting point
velocity
decrease in amplitude over time
damping
The time taken to for each cycle is termed ____
period
The graph of a body vibrating in simple harmonic motion is the same as a graph of a ___ ____
sine wave
3 constituents of sound
source of energy, vibrating source (tuning fork), and medium of transition
_____ is a potientially audible disturbance of a medium produced by a vibrating source
sound
____ may be gas, liquod or solid
medium
if 2 signals of the same frequency are __ _____, their pressure waves crest and trough at the same time
in phase
sound produced and repeatedly reflected by hard walls in such a way that it _____, which means the sound persist for too long a period of time as it bounces back and forth and interferes with listeners perception of the following sound
reverberates
two or more pure tones at different frequencies
complex sounds
______ soundwaves are those in which the partern of vibration, however complex, repeats itself exactly over time
Periodic
______ soundwave is one in whikch the vibration is random and diplays no repeatable pattern
Aperiodic
perception of frequency (subjective part/mental of frequency)
pitch
normal relation between frequency
as frequency increases, pitch increases
as length gets longer of an object frequency ___-
softens,
more mass of an object frequency ____
lower
more weight of an object frequency
lowers
tighter tensions produces _____ frequency
higher
quality of male voice is ___- that that of a woman
lower
fricitives and sibilants have a ____ frequency
higher
vowels/liquids/glides have a ____ frequency
lower
voiced consonants/ stops have a ____ range frequency
mid
speech sounds range from ___ to ____Hz
100 - 8000 Hz
audible frequency range; range of frequency you can hear
20 - 20,000 Hz
period and frequency formula
f=1/P or P=1/f or (P)(f)=1
as frequency increases period _____
increases
formula for wavelength
w= v/f
periodic speech sounds
vowel, nasals, glides, liquids
aperiodic speech sounds
vl fricatives, vl affricatives, vl stops
voiced consonants are ____ of _____ and ______
comination of periodic and aperiodic
for breaking down complex periodic sounds into its simple parts in terms of freq, amplitude, and phase relation
Fourier Analysis
timing between two sounds
phase relationship
lowest frequency with the highest amplitude (complex sounds)
fundemental frequency Fo
Fo in avg male
85-150 Hz
Fo in avg female
175-250 Hz
Fo in avg child
>300Hz
mulitples of the Fo
harmonics
energy carried, related to loudness and amplitude
Intesity
unit of intensity
decibel
softest level you can hear 50% of the time
0dB
highest level you can hear, threshold of pain
130dB
most comfortable level of intensity
40-60 dB
the amplitude of vibration (extent fo particle displacement) is an indication of the _______ of the sound
intensity
the distance from any point in one cycle to the corresponding point in the next cycle
wavelength
formula for wavelength
w (lambda symbol) = c/f

c= velocity
f= frequency
wavelenght depends on 2 factors, the _____ of the vibration and the ___ of sound wave proagation in the medium
frequency and velocity
sound travels through air at ____ meters/sec; ____ ft/sec; _____ miles/sec
344 meters
1130 ft
758 miles
lowest frequency with the highest amplitude (complex sounds)
fundemental frequency Fo
Fo in avg male
85-150 Hz
Fo in avg female
175-250 Hz
Fo in avg child
>300Hz
mulitples of the Fo
harmonics