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13 Cards in this Set

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American Sign Language
a gestural language used by most deaf individuals in North America for everyday communication. It is produced in three-dimensional space by the hands, arms, face, and body, and has a complex grammar quite different from that of English
Audition
the use of residual hearing as an input mode in communicating with deaf child children
Bilingual-Bicultural
a general term to describe a number of related yet distinct approaches to help deaf children acquire communication facility in both sign language and spoken language, while also helping deaf children discover their cultural identities in both the hearing and deaf communities
Critical Period
that period of a developing child's life usually the early childhood years, in which the child's neurological and cognitive systems for language and speech learning are both ready and most active. It may be thought of as a window of opportunity for language-speech learning, one which typically closes due to neurological maturation by early puberty
Cued Speech
a gestural system, unrelated to sign language, used to signal (cue) distinctions among spoken phonemes by use of particular hand configurations and positions that accompany speech. Cued speech is often accepted as a gestural supplement to oral communication methods with deaf children
Language-Speech Age
for a particular child, the time elapsed (months, years) since the first provision of auditory amplification and speech-language intervention (including signed and/or oral modes). A child of chronological age 3 years and 6 months, who was first diagnosed as hearing impaired and for whom intervention started at 2 years, may be considered to have a speech-language age for 1 year and 6 months.
Manual Codes, Manual Systems
Systems of manual gestures (often adapted from existing sign languages) that are used simultaneously with speech to present a redundant representation of the spoken signal in another mode. These are typically used in the practice of Total Communication. Manual Codes are not sign languages; the codes merely offer a way to make the spoken language more accessible to the deaf "listener" as it is produced, and the grammar is still that of the spoken language
Multimodalism
the approach to communication that supports the deaf person's development of a variety of speech, sign and writing methods for communication, depending on the communication demands of the situation, rather than being restricted to one mode only
Oral Method
the approach to communication with deaf individuals that fosters the exclusive use of speech, speech reading, and hearing; sign language is not permitted
Prelinguistic
prior to the natural acquisition of spoken language in early childhood and typically taken to mean before approximately 3 years of age. Prelinguistic deafness is therefore occurs earlier than the child's third birthday.
Residual Hearing
the hearing ability "left over" despite the hearing impairment/ Hearing impairment is rarely total; there is usually some amount of "residual" hearing that might be used by the individual if appropriate amplification is provided. Residual hearing varies greatly in quality and quantity from individual to individual
Speechreading
sometimes called "lip-reading", speech reading is a method used by people with hearing impairments to "read" the movements of a speaker's face and mouth in order to understand what he or she is saying. Speechreading is an art not easily acquired by all deaf individuals and at best notoriously unreliable
Total Communication
a philosophy of communication with deaf children and adults that advocates the use of multimodalism, including speech, sign, writing, and anything else that would facilitate the communication process. In practice, Total Communication typically involves the use of speech accompanied by one of the manual codes for English.