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37 Cards in this Set

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Ergogenic Aid
Any: substance, mechanical aid, or training method that improves sports performance
Dietary Supplements (Verbal Definition)
A Highly refined product that would not be confused with food.
Dietary Supplements (Ingredients Definition)
1. Product (not tobacco) to supplement diet that contains one or more of the following:
- Vitamin(s)
- Mineral(s)
- Herb or other Botanical
- Amino Acid(s)
- A dietary substance for humans to supp the diet increasing the total dietary intake
- A: concentrate, metabolite, constituent, extract, or combo of any ingredient above

2. The product must be intended for ingestion and cannot be advertised as food.
NCAA Banned List
Stimulants

Anabolic Agents

Substances banned from specific sports

Street Drugs

Peptide Hormones and Analogs

Anti-Estrogens
Catecholamines
i.e. adrenaline (epinephrine)

- Agent that have metabolic and nervous system effects, are often used to enhance:
~ Weight-loss
~ Greater arousal for performance
Anabolic Steroids (Definition)
Synthetic (man-made) derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone
Anabolic Steroids (Side Effects)
Stimulates:
- Protein Synthesis
- Athletic Performance
- Increased: Muscle Size, Body Mass, and Strength

Responsible for:
- Development and maturation of male secondary sex characteristics:
~ Increased: Body Hair, Masculine Voice, Male Pattern Baldness, Libido, Sperm Production, Aggresssiveness
"Stacking" Regimen
When athletes administer several drugs simultaneously.
- Typically used with Anabolic Steriods
Muscle Dysmorphia
An altered self-image when an athlete they look small and weak even though they are actually large and muscular
- AKA "Reverse Anorexia Nervosa"
Prohormones
Testosterone Pre-Cursors
- Premised thought that they will increase testosterone concentrations
Prohormones (Side Affects)
Adverse Side Effects Similar to that associated with anabolic steroids
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Hormone from pregnant women's placenta

Similar to Luteinizing Hormone

Can:
- Increase testicular testosterone production

Used:
- Post-Cycle therapy from steroids to up regulate endogenous testosterone production
- Also stabilize Test-to-Epitest ratio
Anabolic Hormone (Insulin)
Secreted by Pancreas
- In response to elected glucose/amino acids

- Facilitates: uptake of glucose and amino acids into the cell

- Increase: Protein synthesis

Cannot be detected in urine

SIDE EFFECT: Major hypoglycemia (even fatal)
Human Growth Hormone (HGH)
Secreted from Pituitary Gland

Ergogenic Effects:
- Stimulation of bone and skeletal muscle growth

Metabolic functions:
- Maintaining blood glucose levels
- Increase: glucose and amino acids uptake in muscle cell
- Stimulates the release of fatty acids from fat cells
Human Growth Hormone (HGH) (Side Effects)
Gigantism

Acromegaly
Gigantism
Adverse Side Effect of HGH

A condition when a person becomes abnormally tall
Acromegaly
Adverse Side Effect of HGH

Disfiguring disease characterized by:
- Widening of the bones
- Arthritis
- Organ Enlargement
- Metabolic abnormalities
Erythropoietin (EPO)
A protein hormone that can be produced by recombinant DNA.

Produced in the Kidneys

Stimulates the production of new red blood cells

Abused by endurance athletes to increase aerobic capacity by large amounts of oxygen carrying red blood cells
Erythropoietin (EPO) (Adverse Side Effects)
Increase RBC concentration
- Increase Blood Viscosity
- - Increases risk of blood clotting
- - Elevations of Systolic BP
- - Compromised Thermoregulatory System
b-Agonists
Substances chemically related to epinephrine (regulates lipolysis, and thermogenesis)

Used Medically for Asthma and other LTMC

Performance:
- Increase in lean mass
- Decreased fat storage
Lipolysis
The breakdown of Fat
Thermogenesis
Increased energy expenditure for heat production
Partitioning Agents
Agents that have specific effects on body composition
(b-Agonists)
Lipogenesis
Fat synthesis and storage
b-Blocker
Drugs that block b-adrenergic receptors
- Prevents catecholamines (nor/epinephrine) from binding

- Medically for CVD

- Ergogenically:
~ Reduce performance anxiety
~ Reduce performance tremors
~ Steadies controlled movements during performance
~ M/B increase physiological adaptations to endurance training by up regulating of b-receptors

May also DECREASE performance by impairing CV response to exercise, reducing O2 uptake
Ergolytic
Reduced sports performance
Essential Amino Acids (EAA)
Amino acids not produced in the body and must be obtained through diet.

EAA's:
- Isoleucine
- Leucine
- Valine
- Lysine
- Methionine
- Phenylalanine
- Threonine
- Tryptophan
Essential Amino Acids (EAA) (Side Effects)
When consumed before/after workouts, increase the effects (strength and muscles mass) of resistance training
Nadir Effect
Theory that acute anabolic stimulus from EAA intake during resistance ex. or in general during the day would be matched by a negative muscle protein balance equal in the magnitude during the night.
- Making EAA infective
- Proven to be false
Muscle Buffering Capacity (MBC)
The ability to regulate H+ concentrations in skeletal muscle during high-intensity exercise
Physical Working Capacity at Fatigue Threshold (PWCft)
The highest exercise intensity a person can maintain without signs of fatigue

Highly correlated with Anaerobic Threshold Measurements (lactate and ventilatory)
Creatine ( Chemical Definition)
Nitrogenous organic compound
- Synthesized in body (liver, etc.)
- Also obtained in diet
- Stored in muscle (phosphor)
Creatine (Ex Phys Definition)
In Creatine-Phosphate form:
- Big Role in energy metabolism
- Forms ATP by re-phosphorylating ADP
- ESPECIALLY DURING SHORT-TERM, HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE

Allows for continuous perform high-intensity exercise (CP as an energy source)

Ergogenic Effects:
- Increases Strength
- Reduce training Fatigue
- Enhance Post-Workout Recovery
- Increase in body mass
Caffeine (Chemical Definition)
Most widely used stimulant drug in the world.

- CNS stimulant (similar/weaker to amphetamines)
Caffeine (Ergogenic Effects-Aerobic)
Prolong Aerobic Endurance
- Increase fat oxidation
- Mobilizes Free Fatty Acids from adipose tissues
- Glycogen Sparing
Caffeine (Ergogenic Effects - Anaerobic)
- Enhanced Power Production
- - Due to enhanced Excitation-Contraction Coupling
- - Enhanced Neuromuscular Transmission
- - Enhanced Intracellular Calcium Ion Mobilization from the SR

- Enhanced kinetics of Glycolytic Regulatory Enzymes (i.e. phosphorylase)
Logarithmic Relationship
Increase in steroids = Increase in muscle and other enhancements