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113 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does raw facts, figures, images and sounds that relate to various entities like people, objects events etc refer to?
Data
What does data that has been processed in some form (filtering, formatting, summarizing). It has been rendered appropriate for a particular use refer to?
Information
What is is a set of inter-related components that interact with each other to work together to accomplish a set of goals?
System
What are the four components of an information system?
collect, process, store, and distribute information
What is a set of hardware, software, people and procedures that work together to produce information.
Computer-based Information System
What is SDLC and what does it mean?
System developement life cycle
What is the process of understanding how an information system (IS) can support/meet business needs, designing the system, building it, and delivering it to users.
System developement life cycle
SDLC
Who is the key person in the SDLC. Who analyzes the business situation, identifies opportunities for improvements, and designs an information system to implement them.
System Analyst
What are the four phases of the system developement life cycle.
Planning, Analysis, Design and Implementation
what is the first step during which the system’s business value to the organization is identified.
project initiation
What provides a brief summary of a business need and explains how a system would create the business value.
System request
What is the deliverable for the planning phase?
project plan
What phase of the SDLC deals with these questions?

o Who will use the system?
o What the system will do?
o Where and when it will be used?
Analysis phase
What is the deliverable for the analysis phase?
System Proposal
What phase decides how the system will operate.
Design phase
What is the first step of the design phase?
Design Strategy
What phase decides
o Whether the system will be developed at the company itself, or
o Whether the company will outsource the project to another firm, or
o Whether to buy already existing software.
Design phase
What is the deliverable for the design phase?
System Specification
What is the final phase of the SDLC?
Implementation
What is the longest and most expensive phase?
Implementation
What is the first step of the implementation phase?
System Construction, where the system is built, tested and then installed.
What is the deliverable for the implementation phase?
New system and maintenance plan
What type of developement methodology deals with:
• Follows a formal step-by-step approach to SDLC that moves logically from one phase to another
o Waterfall Development
o Parallel Development
Structured Design
What type of developement methodology deals with:
• It adjusts the SDLC phases to get some part of the system developed quickly to hold the attention of the uses.
• Users have better understanding of the system and suggest revisions.
• Recommends use of computer tools like CASE, Visual programming and code generators to simplify and speed-up programming.
RAD rapid aplication developement
What type of developement methodology deals with:
• Newer development methodologies
• Programming – centric with few rules and practices
• Streamlines SDLC by eliminating much of modeling and documentation overhead
• Emphasizes simple, iterative application development
• Example – XP (eXtreme Programming)
Agile Methodologies
What type of developement methodology is:
• Moves forward from phase to phase and it is extremely difficult to go back to earlier phases.
• Uses formal modeling or diagramming techniques to describe business process & data.
• Two separate set of diagrams
o Process model diagrams (process-centered methodologies)
o Data model diagrams (data-centered methodologies)
• Advantages
o System requirements are identified well before actual programming
o Minimizes changes to the requirements as the project proceeds.

• Disadvantages
o Design must be specified on paper before programming begins
o Long delay between system proposal and delivery of the system.
o Missing important requirements induces costly post-implementation programming
Waterfall
What type of application developement is:
o Adopts a general design for the whole system
o Breaks project into sub-project that are designed and implemented in parallel
o Helps to reduce the long delays between analysis and delivery of system
o Still suffers from problems caused by paper documentation.
Parallel Development
What are the two forms of structural application developement?
Waterfall developement
and parallel developement
What type of application developement deals with:
• Breaks system into a series of versions that are developed sequentially.
• After identifying the System Concept, the requirements are broken down into series of versions.
• The first version of the system is developed with its set of requirements following design and implementation phases.
• Additional analysis is performed for second version and new ideas that arose from first version are incorporated.
• The process continues till the system is complete.
o Phased Development
What type of application developement deals with:
• Performs analysis, design and implementation phases concurrently and repeatedly in a cycle until the system is completed.
• Initial System has minimal features and it is re-analyzed, re-designed and re-implemented to add additional features in a cycle until it becomes the system
o Prototyping
What type of application developement deals with:
• Have a relatively thorough analysis phase to gather requirements
• Design prototypes are built to understand difficult features or issues that needs to be resolved
• Design prototypes is not a working system but, a part of the system
• Once the issues are resolved and difficult features understood, the project moves to design and implementation phase.
throw away prototyping
Who:
• Analysis business issues of the system
• Identifies how the system will provide business value
• Designing new business processes and policies
Business Analyst
who:
• Analysis how technology can improve business processes
• Designing the new business processes
• Designing the information system
• Ensuring that the system conforms to Information System standards
Systems Analyst
who:
• Ensuring that the system conforms to infrastructure standards
• Identifying infrastructure changes needed to support the system
Infrastructure Analyst
who:
• Developing and executing a change management plan
• Developing and executing user training plan
Change Management Analyst
who:
• Manages the project team consisting of analysts, programmers, technical writers and other specialists.
• Developing and monitoring the project plan
• Assigning resources
• Serving as the primary point of contact for the project.
Project Manager
this oriented approach integrate data and process into self – contained modules
Object oriented
What captures the structure and behavior of information systems through objects that encompass both data and process
Object oriented systems
what is the general template used to define and create specific instances or objects
classes
What implement an object’s behavior.
methods
What is an action that an object can perform?
A method
What is information sent to objects to trigger methods?
message
What is combination of data and process into a single entity.
encapsulation
What encapsulate data and process?
objects
What suggests that only the information that is required to use a software module is made available to the user of the module?
Principle of Information Hiding
What satisfy the principle of information hiding by keeping the data private and providing access to data only through it’s interface i.e. methods
objects
What is a mechanism that allows classes to inherit characteristics (attributes) and behavior from other classes.
Inheritance
what is a class that generalizes the characteristics and behavior of other classes
superclass
What is a class that specializes the characteristics and behavior of other class(s).
Subclass
What inherits the appropriate attributes and methods from the superclass above them.
subclass
what is a class that does not produce instances (objects). They are merely used as templates for other more specific classes
o Abstract class
what is a class of which you can create instances (objects)
o Concrete class
what means that different objects can interpret the same message differently.
polymorphism
what is made possible through Dynamic Binding?
polymorphism
what means that the method that will be actually called on an object is decided at run-time.
Dynamic binding (Late binding)
what means that the method that will be actually called on an object is decided at compile time.
o Static binding (Early binding)
what does uml stand for?
Unified Modeling Language
what represent data and static relationships that are in an information systems
• Class diagrams,
• Object diagrams
• Package diagrams
• Deployment diagrams
• Component diagrams
• Composite Structure diagrams
structural diagrams
what depict the dynamic behavior of individual objects through their lifetime
• Activity diagrams
• Sequence diagrams
• Communication diagrams
• Interaction Overview
• Timing diagrams
• Behavioral State Machine
• Protocol State Machine
• Use – Case
Behavioral diagrams
Object – oriented approaches are most associated with?
phased development RAD methodology.
What are three things that any modern Object – Oriented approach to developing information systems must be?
o Use – Case driven
o Architecture Centric
o Iterative and Incremental
what means that the underlying software architecture of the evolving system specification drives the specification, construction, and documentation of the system.
o Architecture Centric
what Specific methodology maps out when and how to use the various UML techniques for OO analysis and design.
 Unified Process
what is a two – dimensional systems development process described by a set of PHASES and WORKFLOWS
 Unified Process
What are the four phases of the unified process?
• Inception
• Elaboration
• Construction
• Transition
What phase of the unified process deals with:
o Similar to planning phase of the traditional SDLC.
o Business case is made for the proposed system
o Feasibility studies
o Primary deliverable – Vision document that sets the scope of the project, identifies primary requirements and constraints, project plan, feasibility analysis and risks associated with the project
• Inception
What phase of the unified process deals with:
o Analysis and design workflows are the primary focus during this phase.
o Deals with gathering requirements, building structural and behavioral models of problem domain
o Developers are involved with all but deployment workflow in this phase
o Primary deliverable – Structure and Behavior diagrams, executable of baseline version of the information system.
• Elaboration
What phase of the unified process deals with:
o Focused on programming the evolving system
o Primarily concerned with implementation workflow
o Primary deliverable – implementation of the system that can be released for beta and acceptance testing.
• Construction
What phase of the unified process deals with:
o Focuses on testing and deployment workflows.
o Beta and Acceptance testing happens
o Primary deliverable – actual executable of information system, user manuals, plan to support users, plan for upgrading etc.
• Transition
What deliverible results from the following phase of the unified process:
• Inception
Vision document
What deliverible results from the following phase of the unified process:
• Elaboration
Structure and Behavior diagrams
What deliverible results from the following phase of the unified process:
• Construction
implementation of the system that can be released for beta and acceptance testing.
What deliverible results from the following phase of the unified process:
• Transition
actual executable of information system, user manuals, plan to support users, plan for upgrading etc.
What describes the tasks or activities that a developer performs to evolve an information system.
o Workflows
What are the two types of workflows?
Engineering Workflows and Support Workflows
What type of workflow focuses on technical product
 Engineering Workflow
What more specific workflow under the category of engineering workflow deals with:
o Uncovers problems and identifies potential projects within a user organization
o Helps the developers and organization understand how the new system will fit into business process of the organization
o Activities related to planned phase of traditional SDLC
• Business modeling Workflow
What more specific workflow under the category of engineering workflow deals with:
o Includes eliciting both functional and non-functional requirements
• Requirements workflow
What type of workflow focuses on managerial aspects of information system?
support workflow
What is the first step in the Planning phase?
• Project initiation
What is the first step in the Planning phase?
• Project initiation
What is the first step in the Planning phase?
• Project initiation
What is the first step in the Planning phase?
• Project initiation
What documents the business reasons for building the system and value addition the system is expected to provide.
System Request
What documents the business reasons for building the system and value addition the system is expected to provide.
System Request
What are the four elements of a system request document?
o Project sponsor
o Business need
o Business Requirements
o Business value
What are the four elements of a system request document?
o Project sponsor
o Business need
o Business Requirements
o Business value
What guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project, and identifies important risks associated with the project.
feasibility analysis
What guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project, and identifies important risks associated with the project.
feasibility analysis
What are three techniques or areas to feasibility analysis?
o Technical feasibility
o Economic feasibility
o Organizational feasibility
What documents the business reasons for building the system and value addition the system is expected to provide.
System Request
What documents the business reasons for building the system and value addition the system is expected to provide.
System Request
What are the four elements of a system request document?
o Project sponsor
o Business need
o Business Requirements
o Business value
What guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project, and identifies important risks associated with the project.
feasibility analysis
What are three techniques or areas to feasibility analysis?
o Technical feasibility
o Economic feasibility
o Organizational feasibility
What are the four elements of a system request document?
o Project sponsor
o Business need
o Business Requirements
o Business value
What are three techniques or areas to feasibility analysis?
o Technical feasibility
o Economic feasibility
o Organizational feasibility
What guides the organization in determining whether to proceed with a project, and identifies important risks associated with the project.
feasibility analysis
What are three techniques or areas to feasibility analysis?
o Technical feasibility
o Economic feasibility
o Organizational feasibility
What is a measure of program size based on number and complexity of inputs, outputs queries, files and program interfaces
• Function Points
What does TUFP stand for?
total unadjusted function points
What does TAFP stand for?
total adjusted function points
What does PCA stand for?
Project Complexity Adjustment
How do you calculate Total Adjusted FP (TAFP) ?
PCA * TUFP
Project Complexity Adjustment * total adjusted function points
What is a popular algorithm to translate LOC into person-months?
COCOMO model
constuction cost model
What does PERT stands for ?
Program Evaluation and Review Technique
What are the three estimates of time using the PERT?
 Optimistic
 Most likely
 Pessimistic
What model refers to estimates on a project are initially made based on little information and are refined as the project proceeds.
• Hurricane model
What is a strategy applied to deliver a system on time with the main functionalities without bothering about the fringe features/functionalities
• Timeboxing
What is the ideal team size when staffing a project?
8-10
What does CASE stand for?
Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools
What are software products that automate part or all of the project development process
Computer-Aided Software Engineering Tools (CASE tools)
What are Upper CASE tools, Lower CASE tools, and Integrated CASE tools (i-CASE)?
 Upper CASE – software packages used primarily during analysis phase to create integrated diagrams of the system and store information about the system
 Lower CASE – designer tools that create the diagrams and then generate code for database tables system functionality.
 Integrated CASE (I- CASE) contains both the functionality of Upper CASE and Lower CASE