Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/343

Click to flip

343 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Data
The symbols that a computer uses to represent facts and ideas
Processing
The manipulation of data using a systematic series of actions.
Computer Program
A detailed set of instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task.
Software
The instructions that direct a computer to perform a task, interact with a user, or process data.
Central Processing Unit
The main processing unit in a computer, consisting of circuitry that executes instructions to process data.
Memory
The computer circuitry that holds data waiting to be processed.
Storage
The area in a computer where data is retained on a permanent basis.
Output
The results produced by a computer.
Ex: (Reports, graphs, and music)
Stored Program
A set of instructions that resides on a storage device, such as a hard drive, abd can be loaded into memory and executed.
Microcomputer
A category o0f computer that is built around a single microprocessor chip.

The computers typically used int homes and small businesses, (also called a personal computer)
Microprocessor
An integrated circuit that contains the circuitry for processing data. It is a single-chip version of the central processing unit found in all computers.
Personal Computer
A microcomputer designed for use by an individual user for applications such as Internet browsing and word processing.
Desktop Computer
A computer that is small enough to fit on a desk and built around a single microprocessor chip.
Notebook Computer
A small, lightweight, portable computer that usually run on batteries.

Sometimes called a laptop.
Tablet Computer
A small, portable computer with a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad.
PDA
Personal Digital Assistant
A computer that is smalelr and more portable than a notebook computer.
Also called a palm-top or a handheld computer.
WorkStation
1) A computer connected to a local area network
2) A powerful desktop computer designed for specific tasks
Computer Network
A collection of computers and related devices, connected in a way that allows them to share data, hardware, and software.
LAN
Local Area Network
An interconnected group of computers and peripherals located within a relatively limited area, such as a building or campus.
Videogame Console
A computer designed specifically for playing games using a television screen and game controllers.
Mainframe Computer
A large, fast, and expensive computer generally used by businesses or government agencies to provide centralized storage, processing, and management for large amounts of data.
Supercomputer
The fastes and most expensive type of computer, capable of processing more than 1 trillion instructions per second.
Server
A computer or software on a network that supplies the network with data and storage.
System Unit
The case or box that contrains the computer's power supply, storage devices, main circuit board, processor, and memory.
Monitor
A display device that forms an image by converting electrical signals from the computer into points of colored light on the screen.
LCD Screen
Liquid Crystal Display
A type of flat panel computer screen, typically found on notebook computers.
Mouse
An input device that allows the user to manipulate objects on the screen by clicking, dragging, and dropping.
CD drive
An optical drive that can work with one or more CD formats, such as CD-ROM, CD-R, or CD-RW.
DVD Drive
An optical storage device that reads data from CD-ROM and DVD disks.
Floppy disk drive
A storage device that writes data on, and reads from, floppy disks.
Sound card
A circuit board that gives the computer the ability to accept audio input from a microphone, play sound files stored on disks and CD-ROM's, and produce audio output through speakers or headphones.
Modem
A device that sends and receives data to and from computers.
Network Card
An expansion board mounted inside a computer to allow access to a local area network.
Also called a network interface card.
Peripheral Device
A component or equipment that expands a computer's input, output, and storage capabilities, such as a printer or scanner.
Information
The words, numbers, and graphics used as the basic for human actions and decisions.
Digital
Any system that works with discrete data, such as 0's and 1's, in contrast to analog.
Byte
An 8-bit unit of information that represents a single character.
File
A anamed collection of data (such as a computer program, document, or graphic) that exists on a storage medium, such as a hard disk, floppy disk, or CD-ROM
Data file
A file containing words, numbers, and/or pictures that the user can view, edit, save, send, and/or print.
Executable File
A file, usually with an .exe extension, containing instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task.
File Name
A series of letters or characters used to identify a file stored on a computer.
File Extension
A set of letters and/or numbers added to the end of a filename that helps identify the file contents or file type.
Application Software
Computer programs that help you perform a specific task such as word processing. Also called application programs, applications, or programs.
Operating System
The software that controls the computer's use of its hardware resources, such as memory and disk storage space. Also called OS.
System software
Computer programs that help the computer carry out essential operating tasks.
Platform
A "family" or category of computers based on the same underlying software and hardware of a computer.
PCs
Microcomputers that use Windows software and contain Intel-compatible microprocessors.
Macs
Macintosh computers
A personal computer designed and manufactured by Apple Computers.
Internet
The worldwide communication infrastructure that links computer networks using TCP/IP protocol.
Internet Backbone
The major communications links that form the core of the Internet.
TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol.
A standard set of communication rules used by every computer that connects to the Internet.
Downloading
The process of transferring a copy of a file from a remote computer to a local computer's disk drive.
Uploading
The process of sending a copy of a file from a local computer to a remote computer.
peer-to-peer
The process by which one workstation/server shares resources with another workstation/server. Refers to the capability of a network computer to act as both a file server and a workstation.
E-mail
Messages that are transmitted between computers over a communications network. Short for electronic mail.
Mailing List Server
Any computer and software that maintains a list of people who are interested in a topic, and facilitates message exchanges among all members of the list.
Usenet
A worldwide Internet bulletin board system of newsgroups that share common topics.
Newsgroups
Online discussion groups that focus on specific topics.
Blog
(WeB LOG)
A publically-accessible personal journal posted on the Web. Blogs often reflect the personality of the author and are typically updated daily.
Chat group
A discussion in which a group of people communicates online simultaneously.
Instant Messaging
A private chat in which users can communicate with each other in real time using electronically transmitted text messages.
Internet telephony
A set of hardware and software that allows users to make phone-style calls over the Internet, usually without a long-distance charge.
E-commerce
Short for electronic commerce, it is the business of buying and selling products online.
Dial-up connection
A connection that uses a phone line to establish a temporary Internet connection.
Voiceband Modem
The type of modem that would typically be used to connect a computer to a telephone line.
Cable Internet Service
A type of Internet connection offered to subscribers by cable television companies.
Cable modem
A communications device that can be used to connect a computer to the Internet via the cable TV infrastructure.
Always-on Connection
A permenant connection, as opposed to a connection that is established and dropped as needed.
ISDN
Integrated Services Digital Network.
A telephone company service that transports data digitally over dial-up or dedicated lines.
DSL
Digital Subscribers Line
A high-speed Internet connection that uses existing telephone lines, requiring close proximity to a switching station.
ISP
Internet Service Provider
A company that provides Internet access to businesses, organizations, and individuals.
user ID
A combination of letters and numbers that serves as a user's "call sign" or identification. Also referred to as a user name.
Password
A special set of symbols used to restrict access to a user's computer or network.
Case-sensitive
A condition in which uppercase letters are not equivalent to their lowercase counterparts.
World Wide Web
An internet service that links documents and information from computers located worldwide, using the HTTP protocol.
HTTP
Hypertext Transfer Protocol
The communcations system used to transmit Web pages.
Web pages
Documents on the World Wide Web that consist of a specially coded HTML file with associated text, audio, video, and graphics files. A Web page often contains links to other Web pages.
Links
Underlined areas of text that allow users to jump between Web pages.
Web site
Usually a group of Web pages identified by a common domain name, such as www.cnn.com
Web servers
Computers that use special software to transmit Web pages over the Internet.
URL
A Uniform Resource Locator is the address of a Web page.
HTML
Hyptertext Markup Language
A standardized format used to specify the layout for Web page documents.
Browser
A program that communicates with a Web server and displays Web pages.
HTML tags
A set up instructions, such as <B>, inserted into an HTML document to provide formatting and display information to a Web browser.
Search Engine
A program that uses keywords to find information on the Internet and returns a list of relevant documents.
Query
A search specification that promts the computer to look for particular records in a file.
Keyword
1) A word or term used as the basis for a Web page search.
2) A command word provided by a programming language.
Search Operator
A word or symbol that has a specific function within a search, such as "AND" or "+"
Topic Directory
A list of topics and subtopics arranged in a hierarchy from general to specific.
E-mail account
A service that provides users with an e-mail address and a mailbox.
E-mail message
A computer file containing a letter or memo that is transmitted electronically via a communications network.
Message header
The section of an e-mail document that contains the address, subject, and file attachment information.
e-mail attachment
A separate file that is trasmitted along with an e-mail message.
MIME
Multi-purpose Internet Mail Extensions
A conversion process used for formatting non-ASCII message so that they can be sent over the Internet.
Netiquette
Internet etiquette or a set of guidelines for posting messages and e-mails in a civil, concise way.
Smileys
Text-based symbols used to express emotion.
Spam
Unsolicited e-mail typically sent as a bulk or mass-mailing and used for fradulent or deceptive marketing.
Spam filter
Software that identifies unsolicited and unwanted e-mail messages and blocks them from the recipient's inbox.
E-mail system
The collection of computers and software that works together to provide e-mail services.
E-mail servers
A computer that uses special software to store and send e-mail messages over the Internet.
store-and-forward technology
A technology used by communications networks in which an e-mail message is temporarily held in storage on a server until it is requested by a client computer.
POP
Post Office Protocol
Used to retrieve e-mail messages from an e-mail server.
IMAP
Internet Messaging Access Protocol
A protocol similar to POP that is used to retrieve e-mail messages from an e-mail server, but offers additional features, such as choosing which emails to download from the server.
Web-based e-mail
An email system that allows users to access e-mail messages using a browser.
POP Server
A computer that receives and stores e-mail data until retrieved by the e-mail account holder.
e-mail client software
Software that is installed on a client computer and has access to e-mail servers on a network. This software is used to compose, send, and read e-mail messages.
SMTP Server
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol Server. A computer used to send e-mail across a network or the Internet.
Boot Process
The sequence of events that occurs within a computer system between the time the user starts the computer and the time it is ready to process commands.
Power-on Self Test
POST
A diagnostic process that runs during startup to check components of the computer, such as the graphics card, RAM, keyboard, and disk drives.
Beep Code
A series of audible beeps used to announce diagnostic test results during the boot process.
Safe Mode
A menu option that apepars when Windows is unable to complete the boot sequence. By entering Safe Mode, a user can gracefully shut down the computer, and then try to reboot it.
Data representation
The use of electronic signals, marks, or binary digits to represent character, numberic, visual, or audio data.
Digital Device
A device that works with discrete (distinct or separate) numbers or digits.
Analog Device
A device that operates on continuously varying data, such as a dimmer switch or watch with a sweep second hand.
Binary digits
Series of 1's and 0's representing data.
Numeric Data
Numbers that represent quantities and can be used in arithmetic operations.
Binary Number System
A method for representing numbers using only two digits, 0 and 1. Contrast to the decimal number system, which uses ten digits: 0 through 9.
Character Data
Letters, symbols, or numerals that will not be used in arithmetic operations (name, social security number, etc.)
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Exchange.
A code that represents characters as a series of 1's and 0's. Most computers use ASCII code to represent text, making it possible to transfer data between computers.
Extended ASCII
Similar to ASCII but with 8-bit character representation instead of 7-bit, allowing for an additional 128 characters.
EBCDIC
Extended Binary-Coded Decimal Interchance Code
A method by which digital computers, usually mainframes, represent character data.
Unicode
A 16-bit character-representation code that can represent more than 65,000 characters.
Digitize
To conver non-digital information or media to a digital format through the use of a scanner, sampler, or other input device.
File header
Hidden information inserted at the beginning of a file to identify its properties, such as the software that can open it.
Kilobyte
Approximately 1,000 bytes; exact 1,024 bytes.
Megabit
1,048,576 bits.
Kilobit
1024 bits.
Megabyte
Approx. one million bytesl; exactly 1,048,576 bytyes.
Gigabit
Approx. one billion bits;
exactly 1,024 megabits.
Gigabyte
Approx one billion bytes;
exactly 1,024 megabytes
Integrated Circuit
A think slice of silicon crystal containing microscopic circuit elements, such as transistors, wires, capacitors, and resistors;
also called chips and microchips
Semiconducting materials
Substances, such as silicon or germanium, that can act either as a conductor or insulator. Used in the manufacture of computer chips.
System board
The main circuit board in a computer which houses chips and other electronic components.
Microprocessor
An integrated circuit that contains the circuitry for processing data. It is a single-chip version of the central processing unit, found in all computers
ALU
Arithmetic Logic Unit
The part of the CPU that performs arithmetic and logical operations on the numbers stored in its registers.
Registers
A sort of "scratch pad" area of the ALU and control unit into which data or instructions are moved so that they can be processed.
Control Unit
The part of the ALU that directs and coordinates processing.
Instruction Set
The collection of instructions that a CPU is designed to process.
Microprocessor Clock
A device on the system board of a computer responsible for setting the pace of executing instructions.
Megahertz
A measure of frequency equivalent to 1 million cycles per second.
Gigahertz
A measure of frequency equivalent to one billion cycles per second.
Word Size
The number of bits that a CPU can manipulate at one time, which is dependent on the size of the registers in the CPU, and the number of data lines in the bus.
Cache
Special high-speed memory that gives the CPU rapid access to data that would otherwise be accessed from disk. Also called RAM cache, or cache memory.
Level 1 Cache
Cache memory built into a microprocessor chip. L1 cache typically can be read in one clock cycle.
Level 2 Cache
Cache memory that is located in a chip separate from the microprocessor chip.
CISC
A general-purpose microprocessor chip designed to handle a wider array of instructions than a RISC chip. Stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer.
RISC
Reduced Instruction Set Computer
Refers to a microprocessor chip designed for rapid and efficient processing of a small set of simple instructions.
Serial Processing
PRocessing of data one instruction at a time, completing one instruction before beginning another.
Pipelining
A technology that allows a processor to begin executing an instruction before completing the previous instruction.
Parallel processing
The simultaneous use of more than one processor to execute a program.
Dual core processor
A single integrated circuit containing circuity for two microprocessors.
Benchmarks
A set of tests used to measure computer hardware or software performance.
Capacitors
Electronic circuit componenets that store an electrical charge;
in RAM, a charged capacitor represents an "on" bit, and discharged one represents an "off" bit.
Volatile
A term that describes data, which can exist only with a constant supply of power.
Virtual Memory
A computer's use of hard disk storage to simulate RAM.
CMOS
Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor memory.
A type of battery-powered integrated circuit that holds semi-permanent configuration data.
Storage Medium
The physical material used to store computer data.
Storage Device
A mechanical apparatus that records data to and retrieves data from a storage medium.
Magnetic Storage
The recording of data onto disks or tape by magnetizing particles of an oxide-based surface coating.
Read-Write Head
The mechanism in a disk drive that magnetizes particles on the storage disk surface to write data, or sense the bits that are present to read data.
Optical Storage
A means of recording data as light and dark spots on a CD, DVD, or other optical media.
Pits
Spots on a CD that are "burned," representing digital data.
Lands
Non-pitted surface areas on a CD that represent digital data.
Solid State Storage
A technology that records data and stores it in a microscopic grid of cells on a non-volatile, erasable, low-power chip.
Card Reader
A device that can be used to read and record data on a solid state storage device.
Drive Bays
Areas within a computer system unit that can accommodate additional storage devices.
Access Time
The estimated time for a storage device to locate data on a disk, usually measured in milliseconds.
Random Access
The ability of a storage device (such as a hard disk drive) to go directly to a specific storage location without having to search sequentially from a beginning location.
Sequential Access
A form of data storage, usually on computer tape, that requires a device to read or write data one record after another, starting at the beginning of the medium.
Data Transfer Rate
The amount of data that a storage device can move from a storage medium to computer memory in one second.
Floppy Disk
A removable magnetic storage medium, usually 3.5" in size, with a capacity of 1.44MB.
Write-protect window
A small hole and sliding cover on a floppy disk that restricts writing to the disk.
Disk Density
The closeness of the particles on a disk surface. As density increases, the particles are packed more tightly together and are usually smaller.
Hard Disk Platter
The component of the hard disk drive on which data is stored. It is a flat, rigid disk made of aluminum or glass and coated with a magnetic oxide.
Head Crash
A collision between the read-write head and the surface of the hard disk platter, resulting in damage to some of the data on the disk.
Tape Backup
A copy of data from a computer's hard disk, stored on magnetic tape, and used to restore lost data.
CD
Compact Disc
An optical storage medium used to store digital information.
DVD
Digital Video Disc.
An optical storage medium similar in appearance and technology to a CD-ROM but with higher storage capacity. Can also mean "digital versatile disc"
Double Layer DVD
A DVD that essentially stacks data in two different layers on the disk surface to store 8.5GB, twice the capacity of a standard DVD.
Recordable technology
A technique of writing data permanently on CD and DVD disks, the data cannot be changed once it has been recorded.
Rewritable technology
A technique of writing data on CD and DVD disks that is rewritable. The data can be changed, or deleted after being recorded.
USB Flash Drive
A portable solid state storage device nicknamed "pen drive" or "keychain drive" that plugs directly into a computer's usb port.
Pointing Device
An input device such as a mouse, trackball, pointing stick, or trackpad, that allows uers to manipulate an on-screen pointer and other screen-based graphical controls.
Trackball
An input device that looks like an upside down mouse. The user rolls the ball to move the on-screen pointer.
Trackpad
A touch-sensitive surface on which you slide your fingers to move the on-screen pointer.
Joystick
An input device that looks like a small version of a car's stick shift. Popular with gamers, moving the stick moves objects on the screen.
CRT
Cathode Ray Tube
A display technology that uses a large vacuum tube, similar to that used in television sets.
Plasma Screen
A compact, lightweight, flat panel computer screen that displays the pixels of an image using a technology similar to that of neon lights.
Viewable image size
(VIS) A measurement of the maximum image size that can be displayed on a monitor screen.
Dot pitch
The diagonal distance between colored dots on a display screen. MEasured in millimeters, dot pitch helps to determine the quality of an image displayed on a monitor.
Pixels
Short for picture element, a pixe lis the smallest unit in a grpahic image. Computer display devices use a matrix of pixels to display text and graphics.
Viewing Angle Width
The angle at which you can still cearly see the screen image from the side.
Refresh Rate
The speed at which a computer monitor is rewritten, measured in Hertz. Faster refresh rates reduce flickering.
Resolution
The density of the grid used to display or print text and graphics. The greater the horizontal and vertical density, the higher the resolution.
Graphics card
A circuit board inserted into a computer to handle the display of text, graphics, animation, and videos. Also called a "Video Card"
Ink jet Printer
A non-impact printer that creates characters or graphics by spraying liquid ink onto paper or other media.
Laser Printer
A printer that uses laser-based technology, similar to that used by photocopiers, to produce text and graphics.
Dot Matrix Printer
A printer that creates characters and graphics by striking an inked ribbon with small wires called "pins" generating a fine pattern of dots.
Thermal Transfer Printer
An expensive, color-precise print that uses wax containing color to produce numerous dots of color on plain paper.
Dye Sublimation Printer
An expensive, color precise printer that heats ribbons containing color to produce consistent, photograph-quality images.
Duty Cycle
A measurement of how many pages a printer is able to produce per day or month.
Printer Control Language
The unofficial standard language used to send page formatting instructions from a PC to a laser or ink jet printer.
PostScript
A printer language, developed by Adobe Systems, which uses a special set of commands to control page layout, fonts, and graphics.
Data Bus
An electronic pathway or circuit that connects the electronic components, such as processor and RAM, on a computer's motherboard
Expansion Bus
The segment of the data bus that transports data between RAM and peripheral devices.
Expansion Slot
A socket or slot on a PC motherboard designed to hold a circuit board called an expansion card.
ISA
Industry Standard Architecture.
A standard for moving data on the expansion bus. Can refer to a type of slot, a bus, or a peripheral device. An older technology, it is rapidly being replaced by PCI architecture.
PCI
Peripheral Component Interconnect.
A method for transporting data on the expansion bus. Can refer to type of data bus, expansion slot, or transport method used by a peripheral device.
AGP
Accelerated Graphics Support.
A type of interface, or slot, that provides a high-speed pathway for advanced graphics.
PCMCIA
Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.
An external expansion slot typically found on notebook computers.
PC Card
A credit-card sized circuit board used to connect a modem, memory, network card, or storage device to a notebook computer.
Expansion Port
A socket into which the user plugs a cable from a peripheral device, allowing data to pass between the computer and the peripheral device.
Device Driver
The software that provides the computer with the means to control a peripheral device.
Plug and Play (PnP)
The ability of a computer to automatically recognize and adjust the system configuration for a newly added device.
Machine Code
Program instructions written in binary code that the computer can execute directly.
Op Code
Short for operation code.
An op code is an assembly language command word that designated an operation, such as add, compare, or jump (ADD, CMP, JMP, respectively)
Operands
The part of an instruction that specifies the data, or the address of the data, on which the operation is to be performed.
Instruction Cycle
The steps followed by a computer to process a single instruction; fetch, interpret, execute, then increment the instruction pointer.
Programming language
A set of keyword and grammar that allow a programmer to write instructions that a computer can execute.
Source Code
Computer Instructions written in high-level language.
High-level Language
A programming language that allow a programmer to write instructions using human-like language.
Machine Language
A low-level language written in binary code that the computer can execute directly.
Compiler
Software that translates a program written in a high-lvel language into low-level instructions before the program is executed.
Object Code
The low-level instructions that result from compiling source code.
Interpreter
A program that converts high-level instructions in a computer program into machine-language instructions, one instruction at a time.
Resource
A componenet, either hardware or software, that is available for use by a computer's processor.
Multitasking
The ability of a computer, processor, or operating system to run more than one program, job, or task at the same time.
Multithreading
A technology that allows multiple parts of threads from a program to run simultaneously.
User Interface
The software and hardware that enable people to interact with computers.
Graphical User Interface
A type of user interface that features on-screen objects, such as menus and icons, manipulated by a mouse. Abbreviated GUI (Pronounced "gooey")
Command-Line Interface
A style of user interface which requires users to type commands, rather than use a mouse to manipulate graphics.
Bootstrap Program
A program stored in ROM that loads and initializes the operating system on a computer.
Kernel
The core module of an operating system that typically manages memory, processes, tasks, and disks.
Single-user operating system
A type of operating system that is designed for one user at a time with one set of input devices.
Multiuser Operating System
An operating system that allows a single computer to deal with simultaneous processing requests from multiple users.
Network Operating System
Programs designed to control the flow of data, maintain security, and keep track of accounts on a network.
Desktop Operating System
An operating system specifically designed for use on personal computers, such as Windows Me or Max OSX.
Microsoft Windows
An operating system, developed by Microsoft Corportation, that provides a graphical interface.
Mac OS
The operating system designed for use on Apple Macintosh and iMac computers.
UNIX
A multi-user, multitasking server operating system developed by AT&T Bell Laboratories in 1969.
Linux
A server operating system that is a derivative of UNIX and available as freeware.
DOS
Disk Operating System.
The operating system software shipped with the first IBM PC's, then used on millions of computers until the introduction of Microsoft Windows.
Palm OS
A popular type of operating system produced by PalmSource specifically for handheld computers.
Windows Mobile OS
An operating system designed by Microsoft for hand-held computers.
Symbian OS
An operating system typically used on mobile phones and open to programming by third-party developers.
Document Production Software
Computer programs that assist the user in composing, editing, designing, and printing documents.
Word Processing Software
Computer programs that assist the user in producing documents, such as reports, letters, papers, and manuscripts.
Desktop Publishing Software
Software used to create high-quality output suitable for commercial printing. DTP software provides precise control over layout.
Web Authoring Software
Computer programs for designing and developing customized Web pages that can be published electronically on the Internet.
Spelling Checker
A feature of document production software that checks each word in a document against an electronic dictionary of correctly spelled words, then presents a list of alternatives for possible misspellings.
Spelling dictionary
A data module that is used by a spelling check as a list of correctly spelled words.
Thesaurus
A feature of documentation software that provides synonyms.
Grammar Checker
A feature of word processing software that coaches the user on correct sentence structure and word usage.
Readability Formula
A feature found in some word processing software that can estimate the reading level of a written document.
Search and Replace
A feature of document production software that allows the user to automatically locate all instances of a particular word or phrase and substitute another word or phrase.
Format
Specified properties for setting a document's appearance.
Font
A typeface or style of lettering, such as Arial, Timew New Roman, and Gothic.
Point Size
A unit of measure (1/72 of an inch) used to describe the height of characters.
Paragraph style
A specification for the format of a paragraph, which includes the alignment of text within the margins and line spacing.
Paragraph alignment
The horizontal position (left, right, centered, justified) of the text in a document.
Full justified
The horizontal alignment of text where the text terminates exactly at both margins of the document.
Line spacing
The vertical spacing between lines of text
Style
A feature in many desktop publishing and word processing programs that allows the user to apply numerous format settings in a single command.
Header
Text that is placed in the top margin of each page of a document.
Footer
Text that appears in the botoom margin of each page of a document.
Page Layout
The physical positions of elements on a document page such as headers, footers, page numbering, and graphics positioning.
Clip art
Graphics designed to be inserted into documents, Web pages, and worksheets, usually available in CD-ROM or Web-based collections.
Table
An arrangement of data in a grid of rows and columns. In a relational database, a collection of record types with their data.
Frames
An outline or boundary, frequently defining a box. For document production software, a pre-defined area into which text or graphics may be placed.
Mail merge
A feature of document production software that automates the process of producing customized documents, such as letters and advertising flyers.
Spreadsheet
A numerical model or representation of a real situation, presented in the form of a table.
Spreadsheet software
Software for creating electronic worksheets that hold data in cells and perform calculations based on data.
What-If Analysis
The process of setting up a model in a spreadsheet and experimenting to see what happens when different values are entered.
Worksheet
A computerized, or electronic, spreadsheet
Cell
In spreadsheet terminology, the intersection of a column and a row. In cellular communications, a limited geographical area surrounding a cellular phone tower.
Label
In the context of spreadsheets, any text used to describe data.
Formula
In spreadsheet terminology, a combination of numbers and symbols that tells the computer how to uyse the contents of cells in calculations.
Cell References
The column letter and row number that designate the location of a worksheet cell.
Mathematical Operators
Symbols such as +-/* that specify mathematical functions in a formula.
Automatic Recalculation
A feature found in spreadsheet software that automatically recalculates every formula after a user makes a change to any cell.
Relative Reference
In a worksheet, cell references that can change if cells change position as a result of a move or copy operations
Absolute Reference
In a worksheet formula, cell references (usually proceeded by $) that cannot change as a result of a move or copy operation.
Statistical Software
Software for analyzing large sets of data to discover patterns and relationships within them.
Mathematical Modeling Software
Software for visualizing and solving a wide range of math, science, and engineering problems.
Money Management Software
Software used to track monetary transactions and investments
Personal Finance Software
Software geared toward individual finances that helps track bank account balances, credit card payments, investments and bits.`
Tax Preparation Software
Personal finacne software that is specifically designed to assistn with fax preparation.
Database
A collection of information that might be stored in more than one file or in more than one record type.
Database Software
Software designed for entering, organizing, updating, and reporting information stored in a database.
Query Language
A set of command words that can be used to direct the computer to create databases, locate information, soft records, and change the data in those records.
Natural Language Query
A query using language spoken by human beings, as opposed to an artificially contructed language such as machine language.
Query by Example
QBE -
A type of database interface in which the user fills in a field with an example of the type of information that she is seeking.
Graphics
Any picture, photograph, or image that can be manipulated or viewed on a computer.
Graphics Software
Computer programs for creating, editing, and manipulating images.
Paint software
The software required to create and manipulate bitmap graphics.
Photo editing software
The software used to edit, enhance, retouch, and manipulate digital photographs.
Drawing software
Programs that are used to create images with lines, shapes, and colors, such as logos or diagrams.
3-D Graphics software
The software used to create three-dimensional wireframe objects, then render them into images.
CAD Software
Computer Aided Design software.
A program designed to draw 3-D graphics for artchitecture and engineering tasks.
Presentation Software
Software that provides tools to combine text, graphics, graphs, animation, and sound into a series of electronic slides that can be output on a projector, or as overhead transparancies, paper copies, or 35mm slides.
Audio Editing Software
A program that enbables users to create and edit digital voice and music recordings.
CD Ripper software
Software that converts the music on an Audio CD to a WAV file.
Audio encoding software
A computer program designed to convert sound files into a digital sound format, such as MP3 or AAC.
Ear Training Software
Software used by musicians to develop tuning skills, recognize keys, and develop musical skills.
Notation Software
Software used to help musicians compose, edit, and print their compositions.
Computer-Aided Music software
Software used to generate unique music compositions with a simplified set of tools, such as tempo, key, and style.
MIDI Sequencing Software
Software that uses a standardized way of trasmitting encoded music or sounds for controlling musical devices, such as a keyboard or sound card.
Video Editing Software
Software that provides tools for capturing and editing vid3eo from a camcorder.
DVD Authoring Software
Computer programs that offer tools for creating DVD menus and transferring digital video onto DVD's that can be played in a computer or standalone DVD player.
Software Suite
A collection of individual applications sold as one package.
Educational Software
Software used to develop and practice skills.
Reference Software
Software that contains a large database of information with tools for sorting, viewing, and accessing specific topics.
Vertical Market Software
Computer programs designed to meet the needs of a specific market segment or industry, such as medical record-keeping software for use in hospitals.
Horizontal Market Software
Any computer program that can be used by many different kinds of businesses.
Accounting Software
A category of software that includes accounting, money management, and tax preparation software.
Project Management Software
Software specifically designed as a tools for planning, scheduling, and tracking projects and their costs.
Groupware
Software that enables multiple users to collaborate on a project, usually through a pool of data that can be shared by members of the workgroup.
Distribution Media
One or more floppy disks or CD's that contain programs and data, which can be installed to a hard disk drive.
System Requirements
1) Specifications for the operating system and hardware configuration necessary for a software product to work correctly
2) The criteria that must be met for a new computer system or software product to be a success.
Install
The process by which programs and data are copied to the hard disk of a computer system and otherwise prepared for access and use.
Setup Program
A program module supplied with a software package for the purpose of installing the software.
Zipped
Refers to one or more files that have been compressed
Unzipped
Refers to files that have been uncompressed.
Self-Installing Executable File
A program that automatically unzips and then initiates and runs its setup program.
Self-Executing Zip File
A type of file that can be run to unzip the file or files contained within it.
Non-Executing Zip File
A type of file that has to be unzipped manually to extract the file or files contained within it.
Software Patch
A section of software code designed to modify an existing program to fix a specific error or add a feature.
Validation Code
A series of letters and numbers usually shipped on disk media or delivered by e-mail. Used to very that downloads and upgrades go to legitimate users.
Uninstall Routine
A program that removes software files, references, and registry entries from a computer's hard disk.
Copyright
A form of legal protection that grants certain exclusive rights to the author of a program or the owner of the copyright.
Software License
A legal contract that defines the ways in which a user may use a computer program.
Single-user license
Legal permission for one person to use a particular software package.
Site License
Legal permission for software to be used on any and all computers at a specific location, ie. building or campus.
Multiple-user license
Legal permission for more than one person to use a particular software package.
Concurrent-use license
Legal permission for an organization to use a certain number of copies of a software program at the same time.
Shrink-Wrap License
A legal agreement printed on computer software packaging, which becomes binding once the package is opened.
EULA
End-User License Agreement.
A version of the license agreement that appears on the computer screen when software is being installed and prompts the user to accept or decline
Commercial Software
Copyrighted computer applications sold to consumers for profit.
Shareware
Copyrighted software marketed under a license that allows users to use the software for a trial period and then send in a registration fee if they wish to continue to use it.
Freeware
Copyrighted software that is given away by the author or owner.
Open Source Software
Software that includes it source code, allowing programmers to modify and improve it.
Public Domain Software
Software that is available for public use without restriction except that it cannot be copyrighted.
Windows Registry
A crucial set of data files maintained by the operating system that contains the settings needed by a computer to correctly use any hardware and software that has been installed.