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24 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hardware
any physical component involved with the computer's operation
Software
the programs that are executed on a computer
Operating System
a very large and complex program that allows users of the computer to execute commands or application software on the computer
CPU (Central Processing Unit)
where the computer executes its intructions
ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit)
operations like addition and multiplication are done here along with comparisons like >, <, and equality
Peripheral Device
externally connected to the computer, it can perform the desired I/O operations from the computer. (printer, external zip drive, etc.)
Primary Memory
directly accessible by the CPU and ALU, it is for short term storage, and it is where your programs will reside while executing
I/O (Input/Output)
information that goes into the software (and comes out of it)
RAM
primary memory is made up of random access memory
Bit (Binary Digit)
this is either a 0 or 1 (high or low voltage). All information in the computer is stored as some number of bits. (Each character is a byte)
Byte
an 8 bit quantity. (Everything on the computer is interperated in base 2)
K
1024(2 to the 10th power). 128K is really 128 x 1024 bytes
M
1024 * 1024(2 to the 20th power). 1 megabyte is roughly one million bytes.
G
2 to the 30th power. 1 Gigabyte is roughly one billion bytes.
Files
the named entity on the computer to hold all relevant information on one topic. This is stored on a secondary memory device. (Think of a file as a notebook in a bookcase!) We will be using floppies, zip disks, or your own personal, shared (but accessible only by you), MIKENET server disk area.)
Secondary Memory
for long term storage. Zip disks, floppy disks, CDs, flash drives, etc., can hold the desired information for retrieval at a later time
Machine language
the strings of 0's and 1's that the computer can understand which represent the instructions it can execute
Assembly language
a low level language that is understandable by humans; it has a direct 1-1 correspondence with the machine language instruction
High Level Language (HLL)
is removed from what the machine's instructions are and is more English-like. HLLs use statements instead of instructions, but a statement will be changed into machine language instructions. Usually, one statement will translate into anywhere from 4 to 50 instructions.
Compiler
this is another very complex program that will translate your program that is written in a HLL, into a machine language that the computer can understand, or the interpreted bytecode that will run on any computer that has a Java Virtual Machine that understands and executes bytecode
Basic (Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code)
an early HLL to aid in the learning of the art and science of programming. (MS Visual Basic); designed at Dartmouth
C, C++
created at Bell Laboratories (now Lucent Technologies)
Syntax
a rigid set of rules specifying which entities are valid or invalid
Semantics
what is the meaning of something, in our case a HLL statement, i.e., what actions does the computer do when it executes a statement