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22 Cards in this Set

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Lung cancer commonly metastasizes to: _
Brain, Liver, Adrenal glands, and Bone.* (BLAB)
What are risk factors for cancer, other than smoking?
asbestos, radon (miners), COPD
Symptoms of lung cancer present early in its course (T/F)
False . Lung CA is clinically silent for most of its course.*

The presence of symptoms usually occurs late in the disease.
What are some local symptoms for lung cancer (due to local tumor growth)?
A new cough or change in Cough!

Hemoptysis - coughing up blood

Wheezing (particularly unilateral)

Weight Loss
What are some symptoms of lung cancer due to local invasion of adjacent structures?
Chest Pain, Dyspnea,

May also include Superior Vena Cava Syndrome, Horner's syndrome, pancoast syndrome
What are clinical diagnostic tests you do for superior vena cava syndrome?

How do you treat this?
CXR, Venogram, and CT scan.*


Try to reduce the size: Chemotherapy, Radiation, Diuretics, Steroids, Anticoagulants and Surgical removal.*
Horners syndrome triad?
Unilateral facial hemianhidrosis, ptosis, and miosis.*

Anhidrosis=Decreased sweating
Ptosis: Upper eyelid droop
Miosis: Constricted pupil
What are symptoms of lung cancer due to metastatic disease?
Cervical and supraclavicular lymphadenopathy.*
Lesions in brain, liver, adrenal gland and bone (blab) should create concern for Lung cancer (especially in smokers).*
Weight loss
Paraneoplastic syndromes are triggered by _. They are most common in patients with _ cancers
Triggered by a persons’ immune response to the cancer or tumor. (so they have a fever).

Most common in pts. with lung, ovarian, lymphatic or breast cancers.

They often present as neurologic symproms similar to stroke and happen before the diagnosis of cancer!
_ account for the vast majority of lung cancers. What are the two main types?
bronchogenic carcinomas.

small cell carcinoma, non small cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinomas are a type of _. They are found in the _ of the lung and have what type of prognosis?
Non small cell lung cancer
Very slow growing
Found in the periphery and have a very poor prognosis (takes longer to diagnosis bc it takes longer for symptoms to arise)
_ cell lung cancer metastasizes rapidly, and usually already have metastatic disease at the time of presentation. It is commonly associated with paraneoplastic syndromes
small cell lung cancer
How do you treat Small Cell Carcinoma?

WIthout treatment, the median survival is _
chemotherapy

median survival is less than 5 months
PET scan is helpful in the dx of lung cancer because it can provide info about _
metastases to distant organs
_ is necessary when diagnosing lung cancer to determine the best course of treatment
Staging
In early stages of lung cancer, _ treatment is recommended.
complete surgical resection
In mid stages of lung CA, _ treatment is recommended.
postoperative radiation
What offers the best chance for a cure of lung cancer?
surgery
Radiation therapy for NSCLC often effectively _local disease
controls
A solitary pulmonary nodule is a _ lesion less than _ in diameter.
spherical lesion less than 3 cm in diameter
A _ is a spherical lesion less than 3 cm in diameter, usually found on CXR. Up to 50% are malignant
solitary pulmonary nodule
A significant number of lung cancers are initially detected as an _
asymptomatic radiographic abnormality*.