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41 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What was Jerusalem?
A holy city for people of three faiths: Jews, Christians, and Muslims.
What Muslim people from central Asia took Jerusalem?
Seljuk Turks
Why was the Crusades an advantage for knights?
All were promised immediate salvation in heaven if they fought.
What was the result of the First Crusade?
It reinforced the authority of the church and strengthened the self-confidence of western Europeans.
What was the result of the Second Crusade?
Louis VII and Conrad III were easily defeated by the Turks.
Who was Saladin?
A leader of the Muslims who captured Jerusalem.
Who was the only leader who lasted in the Third Crusade and what was the result?
Richard, who signed a truce with the Muslims.
What did the Fourth Crusade do?
It seriously weakened the Byzantine Empire.
What were two of the main effects of the Crusades in general?
They helped break down fedualism and increase the authority of the kings.
What did the Crusaders learn from the Muslims?
The learned how to build better ships, make more accurate maps, use magnetic compasses to tell direction, and improve weaponry.
What were two new agricultural advantages of the Middle Ages?
A new plow and collar harness for horses.
What were some overall effects of the Crusades?
They helped break down feudalism and increase the authority of kings.
What products were trades at Middle Eastern markets?
Porcelain, silk, and silver.
What was the money economy?
An economy based on money.
What was the bubonic plague?
The Black Death that killed mor than one-third of the population.
What was the primary function of the merchant guild?
TO maintain a monopoly of the local market for its members.
What were masters?
Artisans who owned their own shops and employed less-skilled employees as helpers.
What did the root burg refer to?
Anyone living in the town.
What were charters?
Documents that gave townspeople the right to control their own affairs.
Who was an early scholastic teacher who taught theology in Paris?
Peter Abelard
What were troubadours?
Traveling poet-musicians.
What was the vernacular?
The language of everyday speech.
Who wrote the divine comedy?
Dante Alighieri
Who was Geoffrey Chaucer?
He produced the Canterbury Tales.
What style were early medieval churches built in?
What was the Hundred Years' War?
The long-lasting war between the French and the English.
What caused the English success at first in the Hundred Years' War?
The cannon and the longbow.
Who was Joan of Arc?
A 17-year old girl whose courage helped the French rally against the English.
What did Louis XI do?
He strengthened the bureacracy, kept the nobles under royal control, and promoted trade and agriculture.
Who was the War of Roses between?
The house of Lancaster:Red and the house of York: White.
What did King Henry VII do?
Eliminated royal claimants to the throne, avoided costly foreign wars, and increased royal power over the nobles.
What did the Iberian Peninsula consist of?
Portugal in the west, Castile in the center, and Aragon on the Mediterranean coast.
What were cortes?
Assemblies in which nobles were powerful had the right to review royal policies.
What were the Jews and Moors known for?
Banking, business, and intellectual skills.
What did the Inquisition believe?
That Jews and Moors who had converted to Catholicism were still practicing their old religions.
What was the kingdom of Hungary made up of?
Magyars, Germans, and Slavs.
How was Hungary's King defeated?
By Suleiman I and the Battle of Mohacs.
What are pilgrimages?
Journeys to holy places.
What was the Babylonian Captivity?
The long period of exile of the popes at Avignon.
What did John Wycliffe criticize?
The Church's wealth, corruption among the clergy, and the pope's claim to absolute authority.
Who was Jan Hus?
The leader of the Czech religious reform movement.