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36 Cards in this Set

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Dr. King's 4 Steps to Protest
1. Assess the situation--know the facts
2. Negotiate with the group that is responsible
3. Examine yourself—not doing this out of anger or spite and are willing to accept the consequences
4. Take an action and openly break the law
4 Levels of law
1. Eternal law
2. Divine law
3. Natural law- natural reason; don’t have to attend church
4. Civil law-- law of the land; morally binding; must be in harmony with God’s law
eternal law
law of God; its perfect, absolute and exists ONLY in the mind of God
Divine law
portion of the eternal law of God that humans can know through revelation
Natural law
humans by nature, through natural reasons, without the help of revelation, can determine some aspects of the Eternal Law
Civil law
law of the land; morally binding; must be in harmony with God’s law
Pharisees
Jewish lay persons; Jesus is critical of them for focusing on the minute details of the law
Sadduces
hated by the Pharisees; wanted power and prestige
Zealots
those who wanted to resist foreign influence with force
Essenes
Believed that society was too corrupt; wanting to go off and start their own community and wait for the messiahs; Dead Sea scrolls
Judiazers
Jews who were followers of Jesus; regarded him as a great prophet, great rabbi to be followed. But they did not believe he was divine
Gnostics
-Made distinction between faith and gnosis; Christians had faith, but a higher level had gnosis, the highest level of enlightenment

-Produced a lot of writing (Gnostic gospels) that did not make it into the New Testament. Apart of the New Testament Apocrypha

-believed everything spiritual is good, and everything physical is evil
=They rejected the Old Testament and God of the Old Testament for making the physical world
Docetic
to appear to be something that’s not real
-Jesus' must have been an illusion; he was pure spirit, pure divinity
Apostolic faith
apostles who witnessed Jesus were the authority of the Christian faith
-Gnostics believe that they saw him resurrected, spiritually, so they had some say in the faith
Marcianism
produced one of the first Christian Bibles; made of some writings of Luke and Paul and called it the bible
mortal sins
must be baptized and pay penance; if you repent from your mortal sins, you can go to purgatory and be purged of your venial sins before going to heaven
venial sins
lesser sins; innumerable
apostolic fathers
group of writers between the New Testament writers and the council of Nicea
Clement of Rome
apostolic father; said be successor to Peter as Pope
Ignatius
apostolic father; early Church father that was martyred because he refuse to sacrifice to idols
Polycarp
bishop and defender of the faith against Marcianism; was a martyr because he refused to deny his faith and was burned at the stake
Hermas
apostolic father; wrote The Shepherd; translated bible to Latin; emphasized penance and baptism
Papias
apostolic father; bishop of Hierapolis; learned that Mark was Peter’s interpreter; Peter didn’t know Greek
The Didacahe
apostolic father; unknown author; name means "teaching"

taught:
-baptism by immersion
-fasting on Wednesday and Friday
-Don't eat meat sacrificed to idols
-Eucharistic prayers
-slaves being submissve to their masters b/c God has given their masters authority over them; to be disobedient to them is to be disobedient to God
Apostolic Succession
notion that Jesus gave the 12 apostles authority, thus the faith they taught should be the faith of all Christians; thus they passed on their authority to successive bishops
ex cathedra
head of church speaks infallibly
Vulgate Bible
official Bible of the Roman Catholic church
Apologist
defending the church against accusations by: Celsus and Tortillan
Celsus
-accused church of appealing only to the uneducated and superstitious
-church is intolerant of other religions and exclusive
-church might be political threat to the empire
Council of Nicea
In 325 BC, bishops of the church met in Nicea; 2 main groups: Arius and Athanasius
-voted with Athanasius
-wrote Nicene Creed
-all religions have accepted that Jesus was fully and truly human
-Said Jesus meant He was of the same substance with God
ransom theory
popular for hundreds of years Satan held all humanity capture, but he made a bargain with God
-death of Jesus was a ransom payment to Satan to free people from his debt.
Substitutionary atonement
Anselm of Canterbury;  In his great love, rather than judging humankind, he sent his son and passed judgment on him. His sacrifice was not to Satan, but was to himself, for justice.

-most popular
sacrificial atonement
Jesus was born and had a sense of God’s will for his life and began to teach; there were those who opposed him; rather than compromise Jesus sacrificed his life
filioque clause
add the words "and the son" to the Nicene Creed; church split over this
Arius
argue that Jesus was homoeosian--> like substance with the Father
Athanasius
argue that Jesus was homoosian--> of the same substance as God, therefore fully and truly divine