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48 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
absolute threshold
the minimum amount of physical energy needed for the observer to notice a stimulus
aesthetic experience
a term used to identify the feeling of pleasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as beautiful, attractive, and rewarding. the term also refers to displeasure evoked by stimuli that are perceived as ugly, unattractive, and unrewarding
altered state of consciousness (ASC)
the general name for phenomena that are different from normal waking consciousness and include mystic experiences, meditation, hypnosis, trance, and possession
behavioural environment
a mental representation that orients people to dimensions such as time, space, and the interpersonal world
consciousness
the subjective awareness of one's own sensations, perceptions, and other mental events
daydreaming
turning attention away from external stimuli to internal thoughts and imagined scenarios
depth perception
the organization of sensations in three dimensions, even though the image on the eye's retina is two dimensional
dreams
storylike sequences of images occurring during sleep
difference threshold
the lowest level of stimulation required to sense that a change in the stimulation has occurred
meditation
a quiet and relaxed state of tranquility in which a person achieves an integration of emotions, attitudes, and thoughts
perception
the process that organizes various sensations into meaningful patterns
perceptual set
perceptual expectations based on experience
sensation
the process by which receptor cells are stimulated and transmit their information to higher brain centers
sensory adaptation
the tendency of the sensory system to respond less to stimuli that continue without change
sleep
a nonwaking state of consciousness characterized by general unresponsiveness to the environment and general physical immobility
trance
a sleeplike state marked by reduced sensitivity to stimuli, loss or alteration of knowledge, rapturous experiences, and the substitution of automatic for voluntary motor activity
attitude
a psychological representation of various features of the social or physical world
cognitive dissonance
psychological tensions caused by the perceived mismatch between (1) attitudes and behaviour, (2) two or more decisions, or (3) two or more attitudes
dogmatism
the tendency to be closed-minded, rigid, and inflexible in one's opinions and subsequent behaviour
fundamental attribution error
the tendency to explain others' actions in terms of internal causes and our own behaviour in terms of circumstances, environmental influences, and opportunities
locus of control
the generalized beliefs that the control of one's reinforcements rests either on controllable internal factors (internal locus of control) or on uncontrollable external factors (external locus of control)
self-centered bias
the tendency to take credit for successes and avoid responsibility for failures
social attribution
the process through which we seek to explain and identify the causes of the behaviour of others as well as our own actions
social cognition
the process through which we interpret, remember, and then use information about the social world
social perception
the process through which we seek to know and understand other people and ourselves
stereotypes
traits or characteristics generally attributed to all members of specific groups
unassuming bias
the tendency to explain one's own success as a result of external factors, and one's failure as a result of personal mistakes or weaknesses
value
a complex belief that reflects a principle, standard, or quality considered by the individual as the most desirable or appropriate
cohesiveness
all forces acting on group members to cause them to remain part of a group, including mutual attraction, interdependence, and shared goals
competition
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups attempt to maximize their own outcomes, often at the expense of others
compliance
doing or saying what others say or do
conformity
a form of social influence in which individuals change their attitudes and/or behavior to adhere to existing social norms
cooperation
a form of social interaction in which individuals or groups coordinate theor behaviour to reach a shared goal
group
two or more individuals forming a complete unit in a composition
group polarization
the tendency of group members to shift, as a result of group discussion, toward more extreme positions than they initially held
groupthink
the tendency of members of groups to adhere to the shared views so strongly that they ignore information inconsistent with those views
identification
the process wherein the individual so strongly feels that he is a member of a group that he adopts its opinions, attitudes, and values
leadership
the process through which some individuals (leaders) influence other group members toward the attainment of a specific group goal or activity
norms
rules within a group indicating how its members should (or should not) behave
obedience
a form of social influence in which one person simply orders one or more people to perform some action(s)
power
the capacity or ability of an individual to exercise control and/or authority
roles
the set of behaviours that individuals occupying specific positions within a group are expected to perform
sanctions
actions that reward those who follow the norms and reprove those who are deviant
social facilitation
effects on performance resulting from the presence of others
social influence
efforts on the part of one person to alter the behaviour or attitudes of one or more people
social loafing
the tendency of some group members to exert less effort on a task than they would if working alone
social power
the ability or capacity to exercise control, authority
status
relative social (formal or informal) position or rank within a group