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51 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
criminal justice
the structure, functions and processes of those agencies that deal with the management of crime. (police, courts, corrections.)
the scientific study of causes of crime, rates of crime, punishment and rehabilitation of offenders and prevention of crime.
law and order
a political slogan that sought a return to the morality and values of earlier times and rejected the growing permissiveness in gov't and social affairs.
war on crime
President Johnson's response to the growing fears of crime and dissorder. Offically launched with the "President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice."
warren court
Court under Earl Warren which advocated the due process model.
burger court
court under warren burger usually making decisions in accord with the crime control model.
due process model
fundamental fairness/protecting rights of defendants/make sure the gov't is working/redundancy ensures accuaracy/cause of crime is social environment/emphasize formal factfinding/deter police misconduct. 1.)courts 2.)corrections 3.)law enforcement
crime control model
reduction of crime/ protect law abiding citizens/ certain, swift, severe punishment, people make a choice to commit crimes/ deter criminals from commiting crimes in future/ primary threat- public perceives cj system as being too lenient/ law enforcement gets top priority/ an emphasis on informal fact-finding/rely on police and prosicutors working ethically. 1) law enforcement 2)corrections 3)courts.
war on drugs
cj system that is 'drug driven' growth in all three sectors of cj.
role of women in cj
past- few women in trouble. one reason- not liberated in criminal world either-therefore, not given major roles in crime. but, that % is rising. and, the % of female cj employees also rising.
natural law
general principles that determine what is right and wrong according to some higher power.
conduct that the people of a group consider so dangerous, embarrassing or irritating that they bring speical sanctions to bear against those who exhibit it. *not all deviant behavior is criminal and vice vesa.
an intentional act or omission in violation of criminal law committed w/o defense or justification and sanctioned by the state as a felony or misdemeanor.
criminal law
deals with offenses comitted against the safety and order of the state.
civil law
determines private rihts and liabilities.
a crime punishable by death or imprisonment ain state or fed. penitentiary.
a crime punishable by no more than a $1000 fine and/or 1 year imprisonment
mala in se
acts that are inherently evil-immoral in their nature and injuriou s in their consequences. ex.- murder, rape, and theft.
mala prohibita
crimes that may not neessarily be wrong in themselves, but are wrong simply b/c they have been prohibited by statue.
felony-murder doctrine
if death occurs during commission of a felony, theperson committing theprimary offense acn also be charged with murder in the first degree.
domestic violence
activities of a physically agressive nature occuring among members of family, current or former spouses/lovers, liveins and others in close relationships reusultin from conflicts in personal relations
hate crime
motivated by hatred due to race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, handicap, national origin.
uniform crime reports
the annual publication of the FBI pressenting official stats on the rates and trends in crime in the US. Part I offenses- most serious crimes compiled in terms of # of reports made and # of arrests. Part II- less serious complied by # of arrests. Crime Index- sum of part I in a given place @ given time. Crime rate- # of part i's per 100,000 inhabitants.
inquisitorial system
accused is guilty until proven innocent.
inquiry system
all participants in a proceeding are obliged to co-operate w/ the court in its iquiry of the crime.
adversary system
the innocence of the accused is pressumed and the burden of proff is placed on the court.
due process of the law
fundamental principles of justice and implies the administration of laws that do not violate the sacredness of private rights.
criminal law revolution
the nationalization of the bill of rights?
void-for-vagueness doctrine
the rule that criminal laws that are unclear or uncertain as to what or to whom they apply violate due process.
rape sheild laws
laws that protect allegd rape victims from questioning about evidence of past sexual experiences that are not relevant to the case and that might be prejudicial.
going postal
"losing it", or becoming manically violent. In actuallity, postal workers are safer than others in the national workforce.
posse comitatus
men who were at disposal of sheriff who could call upon for service.
department of justice
agiencies include: fBI, DEA (drug enforement administration), INS (immigration and naturalization service), U.S. marshals.
federal bureau of investigation- the chief investigative body of the justice department with jurisdiction extending to all federal crimes that are not the specific responsibility of some other federal enforcement agency.
bureau of alcohol, tobacco and firearms- enforcing the tax laws and other federal regulations that relate to the manufacture of alcohol and tobacco and for enforcement of the gun control act. also responsible for investigating commercial arson.
Drug enforcement administration- control of the use and distribution of narcotics and other dangerous drugs. operates domestically and internationally.
U.S. Marshals
under direct authority of the U.s. attorney general's office. has the power to enforce all federal laws that are not the specific responsibility of some ofthr federal agency. Major activities- administering proceedings at the federal courts, protect relocated witnesses.
an international police organization of 178 member countries that serve as a epository of intelligence information on wanted criminals
private policing
provide guard, patrol, detction, protection, and alarm servies as well as armored car transportation, crowd control, insurance investgation, and retail and industrial security.
vigilante justice
extralegal criminal justice activities by indiviuduals or groups who take the law into theri own hands for thesake of extablishing "law and order"
peacekeeping role of the police
the legitimate right of police to use force in situations in which urgency requires it.
a means of deploying police offiers that gives them responsibility for policing activity in a defined area and that usually requires them to make regular circuits of that area.
kansas city experiment
tried three methods-
1. normal- single car cruising the streets
2. proactive- increasing number of preventive patrol and police visibility
3. reactive- virtual elimination of cruising cars.

findings: police aptrol was not deterring crime
clearance rate
the proportion of crimes that result in arrest.
community policing
a collaborative effort between the police and the community to ID the problems of crime and disorder and to develp solutions from within the community.
police discretion
the freedom to choose among a variety of alternatives in conducting police operations
full enforcement
the tenacious enforcement of every statute in the criminal codes.
homeland security
Security works in the civilian sphere to protect the United States within, at, and outside its borders. Its goal is to prepare for, prevent, and respond to domestic emergencies, particularly terrorism.
federal air marshals
now under the transportation security administration. meant to promote confidence in civil aviation by effectively deploying agents to detect, deter, and defeat hostile acts targeting U.S. air carriers, airports, passengers, and crews
violence by a person or an organized group against people or property with the intention of intimidating or coercing societies or governments, often for ideological or political reasons
domestic terrorism
unlawful use of force or violence, committed by a group(s) of two or more individuals, against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives