Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/8

Click to flip

8 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A typical argument structure
Evidence 1 + Evidence 2
[Assumption]
=
Conclusion
What is assumption
- it is usually not stated in the text;
- it is the only key element to destroy or solidfy the argument;
What happen if assumption is not evidently true?
While holding everything in the argument constant, when assumption is not approved, then the whole conclusion will not make sense anymore.
What happen if assumption is evidently true?
While holding everything in the argument constant, when assumption is approved, then the whole conclusion will be sensible.
Example:
Last week Mike was detained for shoplifting at a groceries store near his house, but he has been a Christian for 10 years, therefore, the police must have been wrong accusing him in stealing.
Parphrase the argument:
Mike was arrested for shoplifting last week but he was a Christian. Therefore, the police caught the wrong person.

Assumption - All Christians will never steal.
Example:
The study shows that chocolate will not cause heart disease. Therefore, people buy more chocolate.
Assumption:
People don't buy chocolate becoz they afraid to have heart disease.
What is inference?
Extension derived from a couple pieces of given evidence;

Nothing is related to assumption or conclusion;
how to determine the assumption which can link the given conclusion and evidences together?
- linking could occur when sth in evidence represnt the general representatives for sth in conclusion.

- linking could occur when there is the correlation between sth in evidence and in conclusion