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150 Cards in this Set

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Crime
human conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction that has the power to make such laws
Criminalist
a specialist in the collection and examination of the physical evidence of crime
Criminality
a behavioral predisposition that disproportionately favors criminal activity
Criminalize
to make illegal
Criminal Justice
the scientific study of crime, the criminal law, and components of the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and corrections
Criminal Justice system
the various agencies of justice, especially the police, courts, and corrections, whose goal it is to apprehend, convict, punish, and rehabilitate, law violators
Criminologist
one who is trained in the field of criminology. Also, one who studies crime, criminals, and criminal behavior
Criminology
An interdisciplinary profession built around the scientific study of crime and criminal behavior, including their forms, causes, legal aspects, and control
Deviant Behavior
human activity that violates social norms
General Theory
a theory that attempts to explain all (or at least most) forms of criminal conduct through a single, overarching approach
Integrated theory
an explanatory perspective that merges (or attempts to merge) concepts drawn from different sources
Socialization
the lifelong process of social experience whereby individuals acquire the cultural patterns of their society
Social policy
a government initiative, program, or plan intended to address problems in society. The "war on crime," for example, is a kind of generic (large-scale) social policy; one consisting of many smaller programs
Social problems perspective
the belief that crime is a manifestation of underlying social problems, such as poverty, discrimination, pervasive family violence, inadequate socialization practices, and the breakdown of traditional social institutions
Social relativity
the notion that social events are differently interpreted according to the cultural experiences and personal interests of the initiator, the observer, or the recipient of that behaviors
Social responsibility perspective
the belief that individuals are fundamentally responsible for their own behavior and that they choose crime over other, more law-abiding courses of action
Statute
a formal, written enactment of a legislative body
Statutory law
law in the form of statutes or formal, written strictures made by a legislature or governing body with the power to make law
Theory
a series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events. A theory gains explanatory power from inherent logical consistency and is "tested" by how well it describes and predicts reality
Unicausal
having one cause. Unicausal theories posit only one source for all that they attempt to explain
Applied Research
scientific inquiry that is designed and carried out with practical applications in mind
Confounding Effects
a rival explanation, or competing hypothesis, that is a threat to the internal or external validity of a research design
Control group
a group of experimental subjects that, although the subject of measurement and observation, is not exposed to the experimental intervention
Controlled experiment
an experiment that attempts to hold conditions (other than the intentionally introduced experimental intervention) constant
Data confidentiality
the ethical requirement of social scientific research to protect the confidentiality of individual research participants, while simultaneously preserving justified research access to the information participants provide
Descriptive statistics
statistics that describe, summarize, or highlight the relationships within data that have been gathered
External Validity
the ability to generalize research findings to other settings
Hypothesis
an explanation that accounts for a set of facts and that can be tested by further investigation
Inferential Statistics
statistics that specify how likely findings are to be true for other populations or in other locales
Informed Consent
the ethical requirement of social scientific research that research subjects be informed as to the nature of the research about to be conducted, their anticipated role in it, and the uses to which the data they provide will be put
Internal Validity
the certainty that experimental interventions did indeed cause the changes observed in the study group. Also, the control over confounding factors, which tend to invalidate the results of an experiment
Intersubjectivity
a scientific principle that requires that independent observers see the same thing under the same circumstances for observations to be regarded as valid
Meta-analysis
a study of other studies about a particular topic of interest
Operationalization
the process by which concepts are made measurable
Participant Observation
a strategy in data gathering in which the researcher observes a group by participating to varying degrees, in the activities of the group
Primary Research
research characterized by original and direct investigation
Pure Research
research undertaken simply for the sake of advancing scientific knowledge
Qualitative Method
a research technique that produces subjective results, or results that are difficult to quantify
Quantitative method
a research technique that produces measurable results
Quasi-experimental design
an approach to research that, although less powerful than experimental designs, is deemed worthy of use when better designs are not feasible
Randomization
the process whereby individuals are assigned to study groups without biases or differences resulting from selection
Replicability
a scientific principle that holds that valid observations made at one time can be made again later if all other conditions are the same
Research
the use of standardized, systematic procedures in the search of knowledge
Research design
the logic and structure inherent in an approach to data gathering
Secondary research
new evaluations of existing information that had been collected by other researchers
Survey research
a social science data-gathering technique that involves the use of questionnaires
Test of significance
a statistical technique intended to provide researchers with confidence that their results are, in fact, true and not the result of sampling error
Theory
a series of interrelated propositions that attempt to describe, explain, predict, and ultimately control some class of events.
Variable
a concept that can undergo measurable changes
Verstehen
the kind of subjective understanding that can be achieved by criminologists who immerse themselves in the everyday world of the criminals they study
Booster
A frequent shoplifter
Fence
an individual or a group involved in the buying, selling and distribution of stolen goods
Gateway offense
an offense, usually fairly minor in nature, that leads to more serious offense. Shoplifting, for example, may be a gateway offense to more serious property crimes
Jockey
a professional car thief involved regularly in calculated steal-to-order car thefts
Joyriding
an opportunistic car theft, often committed by a teenager seeking fun or thrills
Occasional offender
a criminal offender whose offending patterns are guided primarily by opportunity
Offense specialization
a preference for engaging in a certain type of offense to the exclusion of others
Persistent Thief
one who continues in common-law property crimes despite no better than an ordinary level of success
Professional criminal
a criminal offender who makes a living from criminal pursuits, is recognized by other offenders as professional, and engages in offending that is planned and calculated
Snitch
a amateur shoplifter
Aggravated Assault
(UCR) An unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury
Arson
The willful or malicious burning or attempt to burn, with or without intent to defraud, of a dwelling house, public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another, and so on
Burglary
(UCR) the unlawful entry of any fixed structure, vehicle, or vessel used for regular residence, industry, or business, with or without force, with intent to commit a felony or a larceny
Carjacking
The stealing of a car while it is occupied
Clearance rate
The proportion of reported or discovered crimes within a given offense category that are solved
Cohort
A group of individuals having certain significant social characteristics in common, such as gender and date and place of birth
Correlation
a casual, complementary, or reciprocal relationship between two measurable variables
Criminal homicide
the illegal killing of one human being by another
Criminality Index
the actual extent of the crime problem in a society. The criminality index is computed by adding the actual crime rate and the latent crime rate
Dark Figure of crime
the numerical total of unreported crimes that are not reflected in official crime statistics
Date rape
unlawful forced sexual intercourse with a woman against her will that occurs within the context of a dating relationship
Demographics
the characteristics of population groups, usually expressed in statistical fashion
Desistance phenomenon
the observable decrease in crime rates that is invariably associated with age
Felony Murder
a special class of criminal homicide in which an offender may be charged with first-degree murder when that person's criminal activity results in another person's death
First-degree murder
criminal homicide that is planned or involves premeditation
Forcible rape
(UCR) the carnal knowledge of a female forcibly and against her will. Assaults or attempts to commit rape by force or threat of force are also included in the UCR definition
Hate crime
a criminal offense in which the motive is hatred, bias, or prejudice based on the actual or perceived race, color, religion, national origin, ethnicity, gender, or sexual orientation of another individual or group of individuals
Larceny-theft
(UCR) the unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property (other than a motor vehicle) from the possession or constructive possession of another. Attempts are included
Latent crime rate
a rate of crime calculated on the basis of crimes that would likely be committed by those who are in prison or jail or who are otherwise incapacitated by the justice system
Monitoring the Future
a national self-report survey on drug use that has been conducted since 1975
Motor Vehicle Theft
(UCR) The theft or attempted theft of a motor vehicle. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, this offense category includes the stealing of automobiles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, motorscooters, and snowmobiles
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
A survey conducted annually by the Bureau of Justice Statistics that provides data on surveyed households that report they were affected by crime
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
a new and enhanced statistical reporting system that will collect data on each single incident and arrest within 22 crime categories
National Youth Survey (NYS)
a longitudinal panel study of a national sample of 1,725 individuals that measured self-reports of delinquency and other types of behavior
Negligent Homicide
the act of causing the death of another person by recklessness or gross negligence
Part I offenses
the crimes of murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft, as defined under the FBI's UCR
Part II offenses
less serious offenses as identified by the FBI for the purpose of reporting arrest data
Rape
(NCVS) Carnal knowledge through the use of force or the threat of force, including attempts. Statutory rape (without force) is excluded. Both heterosexual and homosexual rape are included
Robbery
(UCR) The taking of or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody, or control of a person or persons by force or threat of force or violence or by putting the victim in fear
Second-degree murder
Criminal homicide that is unplanned and that is often described as "a crime of passion"
Self-report survey
a survey in which anonymous respondents, without fear of disclosure or arrest, are asked to confidentially report any violations of the criminal law that they have committed
Simple Assault
(NCVS) An attack without a weapon, resulting either in minor injury or in undetermined injury requiring less than two days of hospitalizations
Spousal rape
the rape of one spouse by the other. The term usually refers to the rape of a woman by her husband
Statistical School
a criminological perspective with roots in the early 1800s that seeks to uncover correlation between crime rates and other types of demographic data
Uniform crime Reporting Program (UCR)
A federal Bureau of Investigation summation of crime statistics tallied annually and consisting primarily of data on crimes reported to the police and on arrests
Acquaintance rape
rape characterized by a prior social, though not necessarily intimate or familial, relationship between the victim and the perpetrator
Crime typology
a classification of crimes along a particular dimension, such as legal categories, offender motivation, victim behavior, or the characteristics of individual offenders
Cyber stalking
an array of high-technology related activities in which an offender may engage to harass or "follow" individuals, including e-mail and the Internet
Cyber terrorism
A form of terrorism that makes use of high technology, especially computers and the Internet, in the planning and carrying out of terrorist attacks
Domestic Terrorism
the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who is based and operates entirely within the United States and its territories without foreign direction and whose acts are directed at elements of the U.S. government or population
Exposure-reduction theory
a theory if intimate homicide that claims that a decline in domesticity, accompanied by an improvement in the economic status of women and a growth in domestic violence resources, explains observed decreases in intimate-partner homicide
Expressive Crime
a criminal offense that results from acts of interpersonal hostility, such as jealousy, revenge, romantic triangles, and quarrels
Foreign terrorist organization
(FTO) a foreign organization that engages in terrorist activity that threatens the security of U.S. Nationals or that national security of the United States and that is so designated by the U.S. secretary of state
Infrastructure
the basic facilities, services, and installations needed for the functioning of a community or society, such as transportation and communications systems, water and power lines, and public institutions, including schools, post offices, and prisons
Institutional robbery
robbery that occurs in commercial settings, such as convenience stores, gas stations, and banks
Instrumental crime
a goal-directed offense that involves some degree of planning by the offender
International terrorism
the unlawful use of force or violence by a group or an individual who has a connection to a foreign power or whose activities transcend national boundaries against people or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof in furtherance of political or social objectives
Intimate-partner assault
a gender-neutral term used to characterize assault behavior that takes place between individuals involved in an intimate relationship
Mass murder
the illegal killing of four or more victims at one location within one event
National Violence against Women (NVAW) survey
A national survey to the extent and nature of violence against women conducted between November 1995 and May 1996
Nonprimary Homicide
murder that involves victims and offenders who have no prior relationship and that usually occurs during the course of another crime such as robbery
Personal robbery
robbery that occurs on the highway or street or in a public place (and that is often referred to as "mugging") and robbery that occurs in residences
Primary homicide
murder involving family members, friends, and acquaintances
Rape myth
a false assumption about rape such as "when a woman says no, she really means yes." Rape myths characterize much of the discourse surrounding sexual violence
Rape shield law
a statute providing for the protection of rape victims by ensuring that defendants to not introduce irrelevant facts about the victim's sexual history into evidence
Selective disinhibition
a loss of self-control due to the characteristics of the social setting, drugs or alcohol, or a combination of both
Separation assault
violence inflicted by partners on significant others who attempt to leave an intimate relationship
Serial murder
criminal homicide that involves the killing of several victims in three or more separate events
Sibling offense
an offense or incident that culminates in homicide. The offense or incident may be a crime, such as robbery, or an incident that meets a less stringent criminal definition such as a lover's quarrel involving assault or battery
Spousal rape
the rape of one spouse by the other. The term usually refers to the rape of a woman by her husband
Stalking
a course of conduct directed at a specific person that involves repeated visual or physical proximity; nonconsensual communication; verbal, written, or implied threats; or a combination thereof that would cause a reasonable person fear
Terrorism
premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience
Victim precipitation
contributions made by the victim to the criminal event, especially those that led to its initiation
Violence Against Women Act (VAWA)
signed into law on October 28th, 2000, to address concerns about violence against women
Violent Criminal Apprehension Program (VICAP)
the program of the Federal bureau of Investigation focusing on serial murder investigation and the apprehension of serial killers
Workplace Violence
the crimes of murder, rape, robbery, and assault committed against persons who are at work or on duty
Audit trail
a sequential record of computer system activities that enables auditors to reconstruct, review, and examine the sequence of states and activities surrounding each event in one or more related transactions from inception to output of final results back to inception
Communications decency act
sought to protect minors from harmful material on the internet
Computer abuse
any unlawful incident associated with computer technology in which a victim suffered or could have suffered loss, or in which a perpetrator by intention made or could have made gain
Computer crime
any violation of a federal or state computer crime statute
Computer-related crime
any illegal act for which knowledge of computer technology is involved in its perpetration, investigation or prosecution
Cyber Security Enhancement Act
part of the Homeland Security Act of 2002, this federal law directed the U.S. sentencing commission to take several specific factors into account in creating new sentencing guidelines for computer criminals
Computer virus
a set of computer instructions that propagates copies or versions of itself into computer programs or data when it is executed
Cybercrime
crime committed with the use of computers or via the manipulation of digital forms of data
Cyberspace
the computer-created matrix of virtual possibilities, including online services, wherein human beings interact with one another and with the technology itself
Data encryption
the process by which information is encoded, making it unreadable to all but its intended recipients
Daubert standard
a test of scientific acceptability applicable to the gathering of evidence in criminal cases
DCS-1000
a network diagnostic tool that is capable of assisting in criminal investigations by monitoring and capturing large amounts of Internet Traffic. Previously called Carnivore
Digital Theft Deterrence and Copyright Damages Improvement Act
passed in 1999; attempted to combat software piracy and other forms of digital theft by increasing the amount of damages that could potentially be awarded in cases of copyright infringement
DNA Profiling
the use of biological residue found at the scene of a crime for genetic comparisons in aiding the identification of criminal suspects
Expert Systems
computer hardware and software that attempt to duplicate the decision-making process used by skilled investigators in the analysis of evidence and in the recognition of patterns that such evidence might represent
Hacker
a person who uses computers for exploration and exploitation
Identity theft
the unauthorized use of another individual's personal identity to fraudulently obtain money, goods, or services; to avoid the payment of debt; or to avoid criminal prosecution
Internet
the world's largest computer network
No Electronic Theft Act
increases the penalties associated with electronic theft
Phishing
pronounced "fishing." An internet based scam to steal valuable information such as credit card numbers, social security numbers, user IDs, and passwords
Phone phreak
a person who uses switched, dialed-access telephone services for exploration and exploitation
Software Piracy
the unauthorized and illegal copying of software programs
TEMPTEST
A standard developed by the U.S. government that requires that electromagnetic emanations from computers designated as "secure" be below levels that would allow radio receiving equipment to "read" the data being computed
Threat analysis
a complete and thorough assessment of the kinds of perils facing an organization