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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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terrorism, characteristics
1. illict drug trafficking
2. money laundering
3. infiltrationing of legal business(fronts)
4. computer crime
5. illicit arms trafficking
6. traffic in persons
7. Destruction of cultural property
there are seven of them
conflict and consensus theory
a society is made up of various groups, each with their own interests. each group wishes to maximize its advantage.

the haves vs. the have nots
by contrast of functional perspective
Durkeim and collective conscious
crime as a normal part of society.
crime creates social solidarity.
crime creates social change.
survey research
the systematic collection of respondents answer to questions asked in questionaires or interviews; interviews may be conducted face to face or by telephone.

Pros: cheap
Cons: most wont do the survey
must be random
experiments
an investigator introduces a change into a process and makes measurements or observations in order to evaluate the effects of the change.

independent variable a causes dependent b
observation
research in which the researcher observes the group being studied but is not a participant in the activities.

these processes may be used to study criminals, prisoners, prosecutors, or police officers.
participant observation
the researcher may join and participate in the activities of the group being studied.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
measures the extent of crime by interviewing individuals about their experiences as victims. the __________ measures the extent of victimization by rape, robbery, assault, larcenty, burglary, personal theft, and motor vehicle theft.
Self Report Studies
anonymous questionnaires that invite the respondents to record voluntarily whether or not they have committed any of the offences listed.
Aging out phenomenom
too old for crime
physical
men tend to commit more __________ crimes than women do
theft
women tend to commit _________ crimes more than any other crime.
Arrest ratio
4 males for every 1 female
7 ingredients for a crime to occur
1. the act requirement
2. the legality requirement
3. the harm requirement
4. the causation requirement
5. the mens rea requirement(guilty mind)
6. the concurrence requirement(whats in your mind)
7. the punishment requirement
phrenology
The study of the shape and protuberances of the skull, based on the now discredited belief that they reveal character and mental capacity.
physiognomy
The art of judging human character from facial features.
William Sheldons Somatotypes
1. Endomorph - Fat
2. Mesomorph - Muscular
3. Ectomorph - Skinny

Mesomorphs tend to commit the most crimes.
3 body types as they relate to crime.
Anomie
normlessness, a breakdown of social order as a result of a loss of standards and values.
Cesare Lombrosso
Theory of the born criminal
felicific calculus
A method of determining rightness of an action by balancing probable pleasures and pains that it would produce.

proposed by Bentham
Biocriminology
genetic, disease, criminal personality.
relates to Sigmund Freud
ID, Ego, Superego
Lawrence Colberg
1.Pre conventional level: childrens moral rules and moral values consist of do's and dont's to avoid punishment.

2.Conventional level: individuals believe in and have adopted the values and rules of society.

3.Post-conventional level: Individuals examine customs and social rules according to their own sense of universal human rights, moral principles, and duties.
pre, post, conventional levels
Einsynkes 3 dimensions of human personality
1.Psychoticism: aggresive, egocentric, and impulsive.
2.Extroversion: sensation-seeking dominant and assertive.
3.Neuroticism: low self-esteem, excessive anxiety, and wide mood swings.
Differential Reinforcement theory
suggests that the persistence of criminal behavior depends on whether or not it is rewarded or punished and the most meaningful rewards and punishments are those given by groups that are important in an individuals life.

in essence, people respond more readily to the reactions of the most significant people in their lives.
atavistic stigmata
physical features of a human beeing at an earlier stage of development, which according to Cesare Lombrosso distinguish a born criminal from the general population.
Eugenics
a science, based on the principle of heredity, that has for its purpose the improvement of the race.
Social learning theory
a theory of criminality that maintains that delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological processes as nondelinquent behavior, eg through reinforcement.
3 factors of why people break laws, give examples...
1.a conscience so overbeating that it arouses feelings of guilt.
example: steal to make yourself look as bad as your parents.
2.a conscience so weak that it cannot control the individuals impulses.
example:steal/break the law because it does not violate moral values
3.the need for immediate gratification.
Freuds ID
consists of powerful urges and drives for gratificaiton and satisfication.
Freuds Ego
the executive of the personality, acting as a moderator between the superego and the ID.
Freuds Superego
Acts as a moral code or conscience.
"highly suggestive" or "supportive"
results of adoption studies have been characterized as __________ or ____________ to a genetic link to criminality.