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60 Cards in this Set

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Stratified Society
grouping according to social strata or levels, American society is considered stratified on the basis of economoic class and wealth
Culture of Poverty
view that people in the lower class of society form a separate culture with its own values and norms in conflict with conventional society; it is self-maintaining and ongoing
At risk
children and adults who lack the education and skills needed to be effectively in deman in modern society
Underclass
the lowest social stratum in any country, whose members lack the education and skills needed to function successfully in modern society
Social Structure Theory
the view that disadvantaged economic class position is a primary cause of crim
Truly disadvantaged
Wilson's term for the lowest level of the underclass, urban inner-city, socially isolated people who occupy the bottom rung of the social ladder and are victime of discrimination
Social Disorganization Theory
branch of social structure theory that focuses on the break down of institutions such as family, school and employement in inner-city neighborhoods
Strain Theory
branch of social structure theory that sees crime as a function of conflict between people's goals and the means available to obtain them
Strain
the emotional turmoil and conflict caused when people believe they can't achieve their desires and goals through legitimate means, members of lower class feel strain because they are denied access to adequate educational opportunities and social support
Cultural Deviance Theory
branch of social structure theory that sees strain and social disorganization together resulting in a unique lower class culture that conflicts with conventional social norms
Subcultures
groups that are loosely part of the dominant culture but maintain a unique set of values, beliefs and traditions
Cultural transmission
the concept that conduct norms are passed down from one generation to the next so they become stable within the boundaries of a culture, guarantees that group lifestyle and behavior are stable and predictable
Transititonal neightborhoods
areas undergoing shifts in population and structure, usually from middle-class residential to lower-class mixed use
Concentration effect
as working and middle class families flee inner-city poverty area, the most disadvantage population is consolidated in urban ghettos
Incivilities
rude and uncivil behavior, behavior that indicates little caring for the feelings of others
Siege mentality
residents who become so suspicious of authority that they consider the outside world to be the enemy out to destroy the neighborhood
Gentrification
a residentail renewal stage in which obsolete housing is replaced and upgraded, areas undergoing such change experience increase in crime
Collective efficacy
social control exerted by cohesive communities, based on mutual trust, including intervention in the supervision of children and maintenance of public order
Social altruism
voluntary mutual support systems (neighborhood associations) that reinforce moral and social obligations
Strain theorists
criminologists who view crime as a direct result of lower class frustration and anger
Mechanical solidarity
a characteristic of pre-industrial society which is held together by traditions, shared values and unquestioned beliefs
Organic solidarity
postindustrial social systems, high developed and depndent upon the divison of labor
Theory of Anomie
a modified version of the concept of anomie developed by Merton, found two elements of culture interact to produce potentially anomic conditions: culutrally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them
Institutional Anomie Theory
the view that anomie pervades US culture because the drive for material wealth dominates and undremines social and community values
American Dream
the goal of accumulating material goods and wealth through individual competition, process of being socialized to pursue material success and to believe its achievable
Relative deprivation
the condition that exists when people of wealth and poverty live in close proximity to one another, attribute crime rate differentials to this
General Strain Theory
AGNEWE, view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotions traits and responses to porduce criminality
Negative affective states
AGNEWE, the anger, depression, disappointment, fear and other adverse emoetions that derive from strain
Conduct norms
behaviors expected of social group memebers, if group norms conflict with general culture members become outcasts or criminals
Culture conflict
SELLIN, condition brough about when rules and norms of an individual's subculture conflict with the role demands of conventional society
Focal concerns
MILLER, the value orientations of lower-class cultures, features the needs for excitment, trouble, smartness, fate and personal autonomy
Status frustration
form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youth because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by larger society
Middle-class measuring rods
COHEN, standards by which teachers and other authorities evaluated lower-class youths, because they can't live up to standards, youths are bound for failure, frustration and anger
Corner boy
COHEN, role in lower-class culture in which young men ramin in their birth neighborhood, acquire families, menial jobs and adujust to demands of environment
College boy
COHEN, disadvantaged youth who embraces culture and social values of middle class and strives for standards, but is a hopeless path due to ill-equipped academics, social and linguistics
Delinquent boy
COHEN, youth who adopts a set of norms and principles in direct opposition to middle-class values, engaging in hedonism (living today and letting tomorrow take care of itself)
Reaction formation
COHEN, rejecting goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve (can't get into college, education is a waste of time)
Differential opportunity
the view that lower-class youths whose legitimate opportunities are milited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals
Social Process Theory
the view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organization, institutions and processes in society
Social Learning Theory
the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, eith directly or indirectly, interactions that are rewarded are copied and those punished are avoided
Social Control Theory
the view that people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken
Social Reaction Theory (Labeling Theory)
the view that people beomce cirminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as personal identity
Differential Association Theory
SUTHERLAND, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values
Differential reinforcement theory
AKERS, BURGESS, attempt to explain crime as a learned beahvior, version of social learning theory, employs differential associations concepts with elements of psychological learning theory
Direct conditioning (Differential reinforcement)
behavior is reinforced by being rewareded or punished while interacting with others
Focal concerns
MILLER, the value orientations of lower-class cultures, features the needs for excitment, trouble, smartness, fate and personal autonomy
Status frustration
form of culture conflict experienced by lower-class youth because social conditions prevent them from achieving success as defined by larger society
Middle-class measuring rods
COHEN, standards by which teachers and other authorities evaluated lower-class youths, because they can't live up to standards, youths are bound for failure, frustration and anger
Corner boy
COHEN, role in lower-class culture in which young men ramin in their birth neighborhood, acquire families, menial jobs and adujust to demands of environment
College boy
COHEN, disadvantaged youth who embraces culture and social values of middle class and strives for standards, but is a hopeless path due to ill-equipped academics, social and linguistics
Delinquent boy
COHEN, youth who adopts a set of norms and principles in direct opposition to middle-class values, engaging in hedonism (living today and letting tomorrow take care of itself)
Reaction formation
COHEN, rejecting goals and standards that seem impossible to achieve (can't get into college, education is a waste of time)
Differential opportunity
the view that lower-class youths whose legitimate opportunities are milited, join gangs and pursue criminal careers as alternative means to achieve universal success goals
Social Process Theory
the view that criminality is a function of people's interactions with various organization, institutions and processes in society
Social Learning Theory
the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, eith directly or indirectly, interactions that are rewarded are copied and those punished are avoided
Social Control Theory
the view that people commit crime when the forces that bind them to society are weakened or broken
Social Reaction Theory (Labeling Theory)
the view that people beomce cirminals when significant members of society label them as such and they accept those labels as personal identity
Differential Association Theory
SUTHERLAND, the principle that criminal acts are related to a person's exposure to an excess amount of antisocial attitudes and values
Differential reinforcement theory
AKERS, BURGESS, attempt to explain crime as a learned beahvior, version of social learning theory, employs differential associations concepts with elements of psychological learning theory
Direct conditioning (Differential reinforcement)
behavior is reinforced by being rewareded or punished while interacting with others