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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
explain what a snowball sample is and who used it
interview one person and get them to give you another guy to interview. never know how valid it is representative of all street women) miller
how representative is your sample of a similar larger group of people
external validity
asks are the data accurate? did subjects lie?
internal validity
if you want to understand women criminality look at what two things?
changes in society and in the women's liberation movement
who said the womens liberation movement provided new economic opportunities for women and opened up new occupations for them so now they can commit new kinds of crime (embezzlement)
rita simon
rita simon's theory is called ___ ___
opportunity theory
she said womens liberation movements transform wormen: changed womens attitudes to make women more like men
freeda adler
women are more likely to participate in what type of crimes?
type 2- prostitution, writing checks, tend to be at bottom of pyramid
factors that cause deviant street networks
running away, desire for independence, drugs, pregnancy
rejects simultaneous model, uses senquential model of causality
-deviance is result of a series of steps you have taken and a series of new commitments and resulting changes over time that lead you to commit crime
howard becker
he asserts that you are not criminal until you have been successfully labeled a criminal
howard becker (labeling theory)
transform the person from seeing self as good to seeing self as deviant
status degredation ceremonies - howard becker
crime requires:
skills, resources, attitudes
what is a status transformation ceremony:
first death experience for police
to divide something into its component parts and regularize it
the more beaurocratized a police organization....
the greater chance it will have a crime control rather than citizen assistance mission
1 of ___ are behind bars, on parole, or probation out of ___ million people and men outnumber women. ___ are in prison or jail, drug offenses account for ____
32, 7, 2.2%, half
a group of individuals who work together to acheive illegal ends such as prostitution, scams, fraud, auto theft, forgery, drug traffic, and robbery
street network
why are women hustlers vulnerable
they lack the opportunities to do legitimate work while at the same time they lack protection from violence of street life
who are the main controllers of deviant/street networks?
black men in their mid to late twenties who have lengthy criminal records
how do some men avoid future legal problems in street networks
they make their women perform in hustling activities in return for affection, share of profits, status, or protection
when each man has two or three women working for him they for a _____ and refer to each other in what ways?
pseudo-family, wives in law, her man
how does a man difer from a pimp
man provides immediate protection, dresses in street clothes rather than flamboyantly, give immediate line supervision personally, he works with his women, closer age and race to his women, and works in low income areas
why do men prefer to be pimps
to do less work personally, collect higher income, increase prestige, have access to sexual partners, and less risk of arrest or harm
what was the main problem with sandra and betsy?
both were brought up with abusive parents, ran away, had no other choice but street networks.
what are three distinct paths that lead to involvement in deviant street networks?
membership in a particular familial network, young female vulnerability, result of drug use
households linked together on the basis of kinship, pseudo-kinship, and reciprocal personal and economic relationship
domestic netowrk
where do most black women involved in street hustling associate through
domestic networks
an intersection of domestic and deviant networks leads to...
life on the streets
street hustling depends on what 2 things:
the interrelation of deviant street networks with a domestic home and the protection granted by a a home's parents
domestic networks are not ___ groups because they have no evident nucleus or defined boundary
sort of relationship in a domestic home, based on the reciprocal obligations that rise from the swapping of necessities and goods over time
personal kindred
a wide variety of unconventional sometimes extralegal or illegal activities often frowned upon by the wider community but widely accepted and practiced in slums
there is a greater success of hustle prevention in ___ families rather than ____
extended, nuclear
most women because recruited into street networks via ___ ___
domestic networks
what is a turning point in the lives of milwaukee's female street hustlers
the birth of a child
where does death works by henry draw its assumptions and principles from
robert jay lifton's psychoformative paradigm and psychology of survival perspective
distancing themselves helps the rookies deal with potentially traumatic death encounters
psychological numbing
3 causes of psychic numbing?
1. natural tendency

2. show competence as police officer

3. sense of uncertainty in role, not enough experience to feel comfortable
what are some things rookies do to avoid emotional attachment at DOAs
focus on paperwork, dont look at victims face, dont think of them as human, think about different things
what is sitting on the body
assigned to watch a body at a DOA
the intrusive and enduring image that continues to evoke and reactivate images and feelings associated with the death encounter as the survivor struggles to master and integrate it.
death imprint
how do some senior officers attempt to desensitize rookies
make them see the deceased because they know that once a police officer has his or her first DOA, they will be able to deal with those situations more successfully
why shouldnt a rookie seek nurturance
he or she will be betraying thier expected role of a police officer (tough cop stereotype)
by definition of seargent in nyc they must have how much experience?
5 years
___ would describe thier death events in very general almost business like terms, their narratives devoid of emotional content
sergeants DOA job is highly _____, also able to numb himself to the events emotional content
list some sergeant duties at a death scene
must be present to supervise initial investigation, notify detectives if it s a suspicious death, supervise the assigned officers paperwork, and supervise the search of the deceased home
____ dont require interaction with family members or non police personel
DOA can be viewed three different ways:
1. sitting on the body for overtime and extra pay

2. rookie work and rite of passage

3. punishment
what are some death encounters that are particularly difficult for officers
children, "man under", and space case, fellow officer or friend
the CSU respond to scenes where what crimes occur?
murder, rape, burglary, explosion, or kidnapping
though some people who apply for the job of csu because of a strange fixation with death, the job is structured to offer ...
protective psychological devices to limit the impact of these traumatic images and experiences
in order to work with a strict professional detachment, csu technitions have a ..
division of labor and function
the csu mission is to
seek objective truth through science
csu view their subjects as ____ rather than remains of human life
interesting peices of evidence
the sociological theories of police behavior say that situational factors such as _____ make the officers decide how the incidents should be handled
visibility, demeanor, class, gender, race, sobriety, type of neighborhood, relationship between offender and victim
empirical evidence has shown that arrest is influenced by the _____ and the ____
demeanor of the subject, preference of the complainant
who are more likely to be shot at by police
___ ___ state that different characteristics and outlooks of the officers produce different responses in similar situations
psychological theories
the -__ ___ focus on the influence of both the formal and informal organizational properties on police behavior
organizational theories
what is the distinction between excessive force and unnecessary force
excessive is where not much force is needed and unnecessary is where its not needed at all
in Reiss observational study, what percent of incorrect uses of force happen in police control settings?
force is more likely to be used in what incidents
of violent crime, suspects who are antagonistic, black, male or drunk. excessive is used when theres no eye witnesses
in this system, inmates experienced solitary confinement by working 8-10 hours per day with pay in their cells. interaction between each other was also permitted as it was limited to common rooms in the evenings
pennsylvania system
why did the pennsylvania system fail
overcrowding, lack of finance, personnel storage and prison design
captain elam lynds invented this system in which inmate congregation was permitted but enforced silence as a means of strict discipline.
auburn system
in the 1800s a system known as the __ system was created to control the youth offender population
the focus of the reformatory system was to
put into educational training and indeterminate sentences.
what was a result of prison overcrowding?
prison violence and negative confinement conditions.
what did joseph fishman discover about jails
the conditions were so bad people preferred prison
what are the recidivism rates?
people in prison vs people let out of prison that would return to prison
what are 4 common myths about the death penalty
a. it is more effective deterrent to murder than life imprisonment
b.the myth that the death penalty
c. the myth that the death penalty is necessary to protect society from convicted killers who are likely to repeat their offense
d. the myth that capital punishment is necessary in order to fight crime
what are two factors associated with homicide that neutralize the ability of the death penalty to deter?
its a crime of passion, or doubt of getting caught
what is important about prisoners before they are executed
that they are kept alive
why is having visitors sometimes difficult on death row
gaurds have to search inmate before and after, seeing visitors makes them sad to be dying
prisoners on death row and gaurds ___ each other
death row gaurds are ___
"enjoined soley to preserve the bodies of the condemned"
who has the most psychological burden in the execution process
the deathwatch team
what are duties of the deathwatch team
to watch the inmate, escort him to his death, and secure him for execution
why is the deathwatch team an appealing job
it has less of a daily threat and more relaxed work environment
what does it mean to keep the inmate "on schedule"
taking him through a series of critical steps that serve to demoralize the prisoner before death: a final visit, a last meal, shaving, final shower, final walk
death watch is characterized by what sort of control
social rather than physical