Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
URC +1
Handbook for reporting: the same crime will be recorded the same way in different jurisdictions --> makes comparisons across contexts easier
UCR +2
Record different types of info about crimes, and about law enforcement agencies
UCR +3
Make it possible to chart trends over time & is updated monthly
UCR -1
Part I emphasizes street crime & excludes other serious crimes (ex – corporate)
UCR -2
Can be used for political purposes to get more resources, to paint a picture of exemplary performance
UCR -3
Crimes are not recorded as they are reported
Hierarchical rule: crime is only tabulated in the most serious category
self-report +1
Illuminate the “dark figure of crime” (amt of crime that doesn’t get reported to police)
self-report +2
Immediate, not removed like official figures
self-report +3
Not subject to the political manipulation that marks some official crime
self-report -1
Emphasis on trivial offenses
self-report -2
Methodological issues: falsification, exaggeration, sampling errors & memory decay
self-report -3
self-report -4
Actual surveys differ: some ask about trivial offenses, others do not --> comparison b/w surveys is difficult
victim surveys +1
Form a validity check on the UCR
victim surveys +2
Collects in-depth info about crimes
victim surveys -1
People can tend to under-report or over-report
victim surveys -2
Sampling errors
victim surveys -3
Doesn’t record criminal activity
victim surveys -4
Format can skew the geographical distribution of crime b/c it doesn’t count transients
victim surveys -5
Question format can invalidate some responses
official data: 3 points
collected by local police dept & fwd to FBI

most of crime is reported to police by citizens

collected monthly & each agency reports the index crimes
self-reports: 2 points
collected by indep. researchers

anonymity & confidentiality allows ppl to reveal info about their behavior
victim surveys: 3 points
collected by the Census & DOJ

each year ppl report freq & type of victimization

collect info about fear of crime & perceived decline/improvement of neighborhood