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37 Cards in this Set

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Criminology is
Scientific study of criminal B
1.) liklihood of crim B
2.) liklihood of Victiminzation
3.) effect that punishment has on reoffense
Crininology is not
Law and order
indiviudual crime
forensics
criminology is a subset of sociology
want to understand how society shapes/impacts individuals. looking for patterns not indvs.
Society: Social structure
patterned nature of social relationships how society is organized
Society: Social institutions
Schools prisions, courts, churches, families- involvement/engagement effects B
Society: Social processes
socialization (how we learn about norms) influences liklihood of engagement in crim activities
crime is the biggest but least understood social problems
tend to be social patterns and roots to explain. likelihood influenced by society and social structure, social insts, social processes
WHy bio and psy can't explain
1. crime rates differ between location and time
2. why crime rates differ according to key social characteristics like age/gender
C wright mills (1959)
Socialogical imagination: social structure was as teh root of private troubles. he believed we need to look beyond indv explanations and look at 1. hostorical 2. social context. argues that person troubles often arise from indvs life experience and 1 and 2.

it allows us to shift teh way we think about problems from indv to social focus.
Quant
Most crim is Quant.
1. to quantify rates of crim
2. statistically offend or reoffend

obtrain parcial expl
thru survey MC collecting data from lareg sample, <1000
collect by survey, analyze data from someone else, or take qual and convert to quant

Quant: large number of people and getting handful of info
Qual
Interviewing ppl- 30ish to get lots of info

collect by in depth interviews, let them tell you tape record and analyze

participant observation

ethnography- participant obs and interviews

content analysis- taking text, reports. and newspaper video clips, analyze content of medium and try to undertsand messages
UCr
Uniform crime report

Quant
1930, managed by FBI
popo's report to FBI
part one (most serious) part 2 (only ppl arrested)

Problem with "official crimes" and when they are reported, police, victim,

also hierarchy, multiple offenses..only highets ranking is recorded. only events, not # of victims
criticisms of ucr
1 underestimates actual number of crimes in US
2. focuses on part 1 offenses and neglects whote collar
3. ucr reflects popo B. law enforcement has disgresion to report crime.
4. official number of crimes can change in UCR if change in police B and public awareness.
5. popos have diff understandings and def of crime
NCVS
1970's
dept of justice, census beauru
created to solve UCR probs-timer of day, characteristics of victim
randomlly selected residents
start by asking ?
advs of NCVS
1. more accurate estimate of crime
2. avoid issues of popo bias
3. you got an in to offenders and victs
Dis of NCVS
1. underestimates num of crimes
2. some crimes are not reported-doemstic violence etc
3. may over represent num of crimes-say non crim event as crime. time period is flawed..telescoping
4. neglects white collar crime
self report data
survey via school to get info
crits of self RD
1. type of data focuses on minor crime-smoking drinking etc
2. not all study parts are gonest
3. usually only focuses on boys
4. does not take into consideration white collar
qual methods: content analysis
codiing classifieng and interpreting a communication form, webpages etrc
appropriate for any communication
who says what to whome, why, how, and whith what affect
qual: amato (1991)
study about child of divorce
diff between "in tact" and divorce families. analyzed written comments. 61% were neg.
Qual: cnontent analysis
Unit of analysis: who or whom is being studied indv
unit of observation: parent or child (source)
coding: data is transformed into standarized form suitable for either computer or manual analysis
qual:coding:
Manifest content:
Latent Content:
codiung for visible or surface content of the communication-looking for words realted to crime

latent: looking for underlying meaning of coiding form, more subjective
steps to content analysis Qual:
1. identify a pop etc
2. dtermine unit of analysis
3. select a sample of units form pop.
4. design coding procedures for the variabel to be measured
5. test and refine coding procedures
6. base stat analyses on counting occurrences of particular words, themes, or phrases and test realtions between different variables or identifying parrents in laten content coding
Social dissorganization theory
shaw and mcKay- refers to explanation of deviance and the state of society that produces is..it wasn;t indv prob that led them, it was dissorganization of neighborhood
Strain?anomie theory
merton- american dream- 5 parts
1. conformity- do it w/out thinking
2. innovation- keep goal, lose correct means
3. ritualism- follow everyone else, but lose sight of goal
4. retreatism- loset goals and lost leagility-aliens
5. rebellion- keep lose goal, use good bad means
TST
youth motivated to commit delinquent acts b/c they ahve failed to cheive desired goals like social class or SES
GST
paternoster- in addt to failure to acheive goals, also when otehrs take away something that was worth value when we are confronted with negative or disagreeable circumstances
Social control
Hirschi 1969
bonds to conventional institutions-4 elements
1. attachment: degree to which we care about the opinios of others
2. comittment: amount of importantce and individual places on conevention insts
3. involvement: amount of time indv spends on things
4. belief: how much an indv accepts the norms of conevtnional society
Diff assocaition theory
sutherland: some people learn to obey norms and also learn that its ok to violate some norms. deviant volues and norms may be OK with some groups, peers enviroment and media, 9 propositions
i. Crim Behavior is learned
ii. Criminal behavior is learned in interaction with others through communication
iii. Learning occurs with in intimate personal groups
iv. Learning involves the techniques of crime (how to pirate) also learning motivates and drives for committing crime
v. Learning to view legal codes as favorable or unfavorable
vi. Person became delinquent because of excess of definitions favorable or unfavorable—hard to know at what point a person would have definitions
vii. Differential association may vary in frequency, priority, duration, or intensity
1. to explain why everyone who hangs out with delinquents is not a delinquent
2. could use these propositions to explain white collar crime
viii. Argues that process of learning criminal behavior involve all other mechanisms as any other type of learning.
ix. Criminal behavior and non criminal behavior is an expression of needs and values.
1. opposite strain theory
Sullivans
la barrida- auto theft, fewest resources and no pops and tolerant of younger kids in street
prohjectville-most crime done behind closed doors, had public housing authority
hamilton park- supported by adult men in higher paying blue collar, well organized church groups and block organizations
social organization of criminal ops: patterns of recritment
recruitment to more dangerous ways. many teens learned from slightly older
vertical and hor lines of organ
v recruit more so you can work way up. H find interaction with otyher gangs who share resources
Transmission fo skills
those who excelled at skills could attribute to their success special abilitiues and cite specific reasons for failure of their peers
manual and social
teh role and management of violence
the role of violence in the types of economic crime they uindertook their ability to manage it were crucial factors in determing how long they coudl continue to be involved in systematic economic crime.
Gender
paternoster- womens crime much lower
men 83 percent crime arrest and 71 percent properyt
police mor eliekly to arrest men
freud thought women had penis envy and comitted crime b/c of that
girls socialized differntly in school
girls have double standards
girls are more atatched to family
peer influences matter less for girls
age
crime peaks at 17-18
as we age peers do not influence us
need for $
society bonds increase as we age
maturity-as you age
increase in birth rate-> increase in crim 15 yrs later
SES
+ realtionship between SES and interaction
those with higher SES lower crime, because they have more opportunities to interact with communjity