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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The application of science to law describes____.
Forensic Science
The fictional exploits of ____ excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
Sherlock Holmes
A system of personal identification using a series of body measurments was first devised by _____in 1879. Father of Criminal Identification.
Alphonse Bertillon
______ is responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints. His book Finger Prints held the first statistical proof of uniqueness.
Francis Galton
The Italian scientist ____devised the first workable procedure for typing dried bloodstains.
Leone Lattes
The comparison microscope became an indispensable tool of firearms examination through the efforts of _____.
Calvin Goddard
Early efforts at applying scientrific principles to document examination are associated with ___. His book is still used as a reference today.
Albert S. Osborn
The application of science to criminal investigation was advocated by the Austrian magistrate _____.
Hans Gross
One of the first functional crime laboratories was formed in Lyons, France, under the direction of ____. Founder of the Institute of Criminalistics at Lyons University.
Edmond Locard
The transfer of evidence expected to occur when two objects come in contact with one another was a concept first advocated by the forensic scientist _____.
Edmond Locard
The first forensic laboratory in the United States was created in 1923 by the ____.
Los Angeles Police Department
The state of ____ is an excellect example of a geographical area in the United States that has created a system of integrated regional and satellite labs.
California
In contrast to the United States, Britain's crime laboratory system is characterized by a national system of ____ laboratories.
regional
The increasing demand for ____ analysis has been the single most important factor in the recent expansion of crime laboratory services in the United States.
DNA
Four important federal agencies offering forensic services are ___,___,___,and ___.
FBI
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Bureau ofAlcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives
U.S. Postal Inspection Service
A decentralized system of crime laboratories currently exists in the United States under the auspices of various governmental agencies at the ___,___,___,and ___ levels of government.
County
Municipal
State
Federal
The application of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the ____ Unit of a crime laboratory.
Physical Science Unit
The examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the ___.
Fire Arms Unit
The examination of blood, hairs, fibers, and botanical materials is conducted in the ___ unit of a crime laboratory.
Biology Unit
The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is a function of the ___ Unit.
Toxicology Unit
The ___ Unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of a crime to retrieve evidence for laboratory examination.
Crime Scene Investigation Unit
The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of ___.
Frye verses U.S.
In the case of ___, the Supreme Court rulled that in assessing the admissibility of new and unique scientific tests the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of "general acceptance."
Dubert verses Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
A Florida case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide discretion that the trial judge has in matters of scientific inquiry is ___. Landmark Case:
Judge allowed the use of data from a test specifically created for the case presented to the coroner. That the use of Succinylcholine Chloride was used to kill the victim. Defense stated that it was to new and lacked factual data.
Coppolino verses Florida State
A(n) ___ is a person who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will help the court determine the truth of the matter at issue.
Expert Witness
The expert witness's courtroom demeanor will? or will not? play an important role in deciding what weight the court will assign to his or her testimony.
Will
The testimony of an expert witness incorporates his or her personal opinion? or simple education? relating to a matter he or she has either studied or examined.
Simple Education
The ability of the investigator to recognize and collect crime-scene evidence properly depends on the amount of ___ received from the crime laboratory.
training
When ___ sets in after death, the skin appears dark blue or purple in areas closest to the ground.
Liver Mortis
A method for approximating the time of death is to determine body temperature.
Algor Mortis
Father of Forensic Toxicology.
Mathieu Orfila
The creator of the fictional character Sherlock Holmes.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle
____ found that blood can be grouped into different catagories
Dr. Karl Landsteiner
Decision by court during this case:
New analysis sop must be generally accepted in the particular field from which it has sufficiently been established.
Frye Versus United States (1923)
Decision by courts during this case:
The judge is the "gate-keeper" of ALL scientific and expert testimony.
Kumho Tire Co., LTD. Versus Carmichael (1999)
Study of hand writing and typewriting on questioned documents to prove aunthenticity.
Documentation Examination Unit
Examines and records physical evidence. Use of specialized equipment and techniques. To provide the court with visual aids.
Photography Unit
Tool used only for the interrogation, and is not admissable in court.
Polygraph.