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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
crime
conduct in violation of the criminal laws of a state, the federal government, or a local jurisdiction, for which there is no legally acceptable justification or excuse
individual rights
The rights guaranteed to all members to American society by the U.S. Constitution (especially those found in the first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the Bill of Rights) These rights are particularly important to criminal defendants facing formal processing by the criminal justice system.
USA PATRIOT Act of 2001
A federal law (Public Law 107-56) enacted in response to terrorist attacks on the World Trade CEnter and the Pentagon on September 11, 2001. The law, officially titled the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Apporpriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act, substantially broadened the investigative authority of law enforcement agencies throughout America and is applicable to many crimes other than terrorism.
individual-rights advocate
one who seeks to protect personal freedoms within the process of criminal justice
public-order advocate
One who believes that under certain circumstances involving a criminal threat to public safety, the interests of society should take precedence over individual rights.
justice
the principle of fairness, the ideal of moral equity
social justice
An ideal that embraces all aspects of civilized life and that is linked to fundamental notions of fairness and to cultural beliefs about right and wrong
civil justice
The civil law, the law of civil procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with private rights and remedies sought by civil action. Civil justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation's civil courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong
criminal justice
In the strictest sense, the criminal (penal) law, the law of criminal procedure, and the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of this body of law. Criminal justice cannot be separated from social justice because the kind of justice enacted in our nation's criminal courts is a reflection of basic American understandings of right and wrong
administration of justice
The performance of any of the following activities: detection, apprehensino, detentino, pretrial release, post-trial release, prosecution, adjudication, correctional supervision, or rehabilitation of accused persons or criminal offenders.
criminal justice system
The aggregate of all operating and admininstrative or technical support agencies that perform criminal justice functions. The basic divisions of criminal justice are law enforcement, courts, and corrections.
consensus model
A criminal justice perspective that assumes that the systems components work together harmoniously to achieve the social product we call justice.
conflict model
A criminal justice perspective that assumes that the system's components function primarily to serve their own interests. According to this theoretical framework, justice is more a product of conflicts among agencies than it is the result of cooperation among agencies.
warrant
In criminal proceedings, a writ issued by a judicial officer directing a law enforcement officer to perform a specified act and affording the officer protection from damages if he or she performs it
booking
A law enforcement or correctional administrative process officially recording an entry into detention after arrest and identifying the person, the place, the time, the reason for arrest, and the arresting authority
bail
the mondey or property pledged to the court or actually deposited with the court to effect the release of a person from legal custody
preliminary hearing
a proceeding before a judicial officer in which three matters must be decided: (1) whether a crime was comitted (2) whether the crime ocurred within the territorial jurisdiction of the court, and (3) whether there are reasonable grounds to believe that the defendant committed the crime.
probable cause
A set of facts and circumstances that would induce a reasonably intelligent and prudent person to believe that a particular other person has committed a specific crime. Also, reasonable grounds to make or believe an accusation. Probable cause refers to the necessary level of belief that would allow for police seizures (arrests) of individuals and full searches of dwellings, vehicles and possessions
information
A formal, written accusation submitted to a court by a prosecutor, alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense.
indictment
A formal, written, accusation submitted to the court by a grand jury , alleging that a specified person has committed a specified offense, usually a felony.
grand jury
A group of jurors who have been selected according to law and have been sworn to hear the evidence and determine whether there is sufficient evidence to bring the accused person to trial, to investigate criminal activity generally, or to investigate the conduct of a public agency or official
arraignment
Strictly, the hearing before a court having jurisdiction in a criminal case, in which the identity of the defendant is established, the defendant is informed of his or her rights, and the defendant is required to enter a plea. In some usages, any appearance in criminal court prior to trial
Trial
In criminal proceedings, the examination in court of the issues of fact and relevant law in a case for the purpose of convicting or acquitting the defendant
consecutive sentence
One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served in sequence with the other. Also, a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, thus increasing the maximum time the offender may be unders upervision.
concurrent sentence
One of two or more sentences imposed at the same time, after conviction for more than one offense, and served at the same time. Also, a new sentence for a new conviction, imposed upon a person already under sentence for a previous offense, served at the same time as the previuos sentence.
due process
A right guaranteed by the Fifth, Sixth, and Fourteenth Amendments of the U.S. COnstitution and generally understood, in legal contexts, to mean the due course of legal proceedings, according to the rules and forms established for the protection of individual rights. In criminal proceedings, due process of law is generally understood to include the following elements: a law creating and defining the offense, an impartial tribunal having jurisdictional authority over the case, accusation in proper form, notice and opportunity to defend, trial according to established procedure, and discharge from all restraints or obligations unless convicted.
crime-control model
A criminal justice perspective that emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders.
social control
The use of sanctions and rewards within a group to influence and shape the behavior of individual members of that group. Social control is a primary concern of social groups and communities, and it is their interest in the exercise of social control that leads to the creation of both criminal and civil statutes.
criminology
The scientific study of the causes and prevention of crime and the rehabilitation and punishment of offenders.
multiculturalism
The existence within one society of diverse groups that maintain unique cultural identities while frequently accepting and participating in the larger society's legal and political systems. It is often used in conjunction with the term diversity to identify many distinctions of social significance.