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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
breaking the law; punishable by fines, jail, formal sanctions
behavior, belief, condition that violates social norms
3 main forms of deviance
What defines deviance?
situation, it can be relative, varies in seriousness, age, culture, religion
Social Control (part one)
the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity and discourage deviance
Social Control (part two)
can be internal controls (socialization) or external controls (sanctions)
Functionalist Perspecitve of Deviance
deviance is natural and inevitable in all societies
Anomie serves three functions
clarifies rules, unites group, promotes social change
Strain Theory
people feel strained when they are exposed to cultural goals they are unable to attain ex. wealth-education
Robert Merton
5 ways people tend to adapt to cultural oals and the means of obtaining them
5 ways people tend to adapt to cultural oals and the means of obtaining them
conformity, innovation, rituralism, retreatism, rebellion
accepts means and goals
accepts goals not means
accepts means not goals
doesn't accept goals or means
replace goals and means
Oppurtunity Theory (part one)
for deviance to occur people must have access to illegitimate oppurtunity structures
Oppurtunity Theory (part two)
these provide people an oppurtunity to acquire, illegitimately, what they cannot achieve legitimately
ex. gangs
Symbolic Interation Perspective
differential association theory and differential reinforcement theory
Differential association theory
people will be more deviant if they hang aroung other who are
Differential reinforcement theory
people are deviant for the same reasons as people who conform
Rational Choice Theory
deviance occurs when people weigh the costs and benefits of deviant behavior and decide the benefits outweigh the costs
Control Bond Theory
people insulate themselves from deviance by inner(sense of responsibility) and outer (family) containments
Social Bond Theory
people are more likely to be deviant if they feel their ties to the society are weak and broken
Labeling Theory
Deviance is all about power relations, those with power decide what is deviant, the poor are more deviant
Social Dynamite and Junk
Deviance and Capitalism
the rich commit crime b/c they are greedy, the poor commit crimes to survive
Deviance and Capitalism (part two)
laws and criminal justice support the wealthy, unequal distribution of resources lead to crime
How the law classifies crime
felonies and misdemeanors, UCR
Uniform Crime Report
compiled by FBI since 1930 focuses on the 8 major index ctimes
8 major index crimes
murder, rape, robbery, assault, burglary, car theft, arson, larceny
Conventional Crime
street crime- violent, property and moral crimes (victimless)
Violent Crime
uncommon, but seems to be everywhere b/c causes the most anxiety
Occupational Crime
"White Collar Crime"- committed by people in the course of their job
Corporate Crime
illegal acts committed by employees on behalf of the company and with it's support
ex. fraud, price fixing
Organized Crime
a "business" that supplies illegal goods and services for a profit ex. drug trafficking, prostitution
Political Crime
illegal acts involving tha abuse of power by gov't officals to make a political statement
Uniform Crime Report
only reported crimes
National Crime Victimization Survey
anonymous self-report, much higher rates
Most common arrest categories for men and women
DUI, larceny, ua drinking, disorderly conduct, simple assault
are much more likely to be victims of and arrested for the most criminal offenses
report being more worried about crime
Highest rates for index crimes
13-25 with a peak at 16-18
White and Latinos account for
70% of index crime arrests
African Americans
arrested at higher rates for violent crimes
Crime Victims, men vs. women
men are more likely to be victims but women are more worried
report being the most worried but the least likely to be victims
African American and Latinos
between the ages of (12-24) most likely of crime
men are robbed more than women and the young more than the old
Top 5 Global crimes
drugs, weapons and nuclear material, smuggling, sale and trafficking of women and children, selling body parts
physical and verbal behavior intended to hurt someone
ex. hitting, punching, kicking, slapping
Hostile Aggression
aggression driven by anger, goal to injure
Instrumental aggression
aggression that serves a bigger purpose, hurting a hostage to show the police you mean business
Aggression is instinctual
it is innate, unlearned and demonstrated by each member of a species, every1 is aggressive no explan. for environ, cues
Evolutionary perspective
aggression can be adaptive as it promotes survival of the fittest, passing of genes, means of getting more
Neural Influences
specific areas of the brain can influence it, amygdala stimulates it, a less active prefrontal cortex
Genetic Influences
some people are born more aggressive than others
Biochemical Influences
less aggressive when drinking, lower inhibitions and self awareness, high testos., low serotonin
Frustration-Aggression Theory
frustration=aggression, higher motiva.=higher frus.
closer to goal= high frus.
Frustration leads to
Aggression when we perceive the blockage as unjustifiable, you can't do it cause i said you can't
Aggression: A learned behavior
positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, social learning theory
Four steps to learning via observation
pay attention to model, process and remember behavior, be able to perform the behavior, repeat it
Aggressive models: family
use corporal punishment
Aggressive models: subculture
environment, role of ethnicity
Aggressive models:Media
act more aggressive when view aggressive behavior
Aggressive models
the aggressive person is viewed favorably, the violence is justified, the victim isn't hurt, the aggressor isn't punished
Violent programs on behavior
cause one to feel aroused behavior, disinhibits- if others act violently i can too, imitation
Television's affects on cognition
desensitization, cartoons, adults who watch more crime t.v. are more scared
social contagion
group effect where aggression breeds higher leavels of aggressiveness components: deindividuation
Catharis hypothesis
pent up aggression should be released in a controlled way
When possible reward nonaggressive behavior
explain why rewarding, ignore aggressive behavior, no punishment, model nonaggressiveness, educate children by explaining agg. acts
not realistic, occur more frequently than in life, explain unrealisticality, discuss why agg. is not good
aggression is more likely to occur when
males are involved, naturall aggressive, alcohol, viewing violence, anonymity, provacation, weapons,groups
Group influences 2
group-fed arousal and group polarization