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23 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
collective efficancy
"social cohesion among neighbors combined with their willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good" "supervising children and maintaining order"

weaker social organizations had higher rates of crime and delinquency
defensible space
subdicvision and design of housing to allow residents to distinguish stranger from neighbor
bystander response to crime
least likely where fear of crime leads people to withdraw from socil contacts, eg. stay at home at night, avoid strangers
pluralistic ignornance
witness in a group fail to help because they interpret the faqilure of other witnesses to help as meaning that no help is needed.

witnesses who are alone more weak
diffusion of responsibility
occuse in groups of witnesses beacause people can say to themselves that someone else should have helped.
three components of the criminal justice system
police, courts, and prison
case attrition
funnel or sieve effect that characterizes the criminal justice system
bail system
designed to ensure that defendants will shop up to face the charges against tnem when their trial is wcheduled...

bonding agents
preventive detention
system that holds some defendants without bail
ratify agreements between defense attorneys and prosecutors about the sentence that defendent will receive for pleaing guilty... happens in lower court

judges suppost to sentence offenders on the basis of legal criteria: nature of the crimes for which they are convicted, and perhaps teheir criminal record
intensive form- report weekly rather than monthly

supervised release

designed to ffer convicted offenders treatnent outside prison where they can maintain ties to conventional society
sentence disparaty
difference in teh criminal sanctions handed out to pepole who are convicted of similar offenses and who have similar crimal records
race and sentencing of drug offenders
new laws against drug offenders incarcedrated a lot more blacks
race and capital punnishment
race of the victims influences the likely hood of being charged with capital murder or receiving death penalty. whites get d.p. more often than blacks
no more than 1 or 2% of all serious crimes lead to inprisonment of an iffender.
inhibition of crimenal activity by state imposed penalities
specific deterrence
occuse when individuals who are punished for a particular crime do not commit that crime again becaue their risk-reward calculation have been altered by the punishment.
general deterrence
inhibition of the desire to engagte in crime among the general population through the punishemt of certain fofenders.
marginal deterent effect
punishemnt is the extent to which crime reates respond to incremental changes in the threat of canctions. increasing the rate at which the policce arrest offenders from 1 to 100 percent would undoubtedly deter many criminals but increasing from 20 to 22 would do much
deterrene and the police
increasing the nubmer and size of police force leads to decrease in crime
directed patrol
strategic redeployment of existing resources based on analysis of crime stats
custodial control
incapacitation is the custodial control of convicted offendsrs so that they cannot commit crimes against society again.
selective incapacitation
seperate high risk offenders from low-risk ones and hold only those who are most likely to be dangerous if released