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63 Cards in this Set

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craniometry
study facial growth using skulls of human remains

uses cross sectional method
anthropometry
study facial growth on living people using calipers

uses both longitudinal and cross sectional methods

looks at same skeltal landmarks as craniometry but also looks at soft tissue
cephlometry
assessment of craniofacial relations through radiograph
2 types of cephs
lateral
PA
Advantages of cephlometry
combines both anthropometry and craniometry
disadvantage of cephalometry
it is 2D so you must combine the lat and PA ceph
color codes and purpose
different colors are used to assess growth changes

black-prior to Tx (T1)
Blue-progress
Red-right after finishing Tx
Green-recall (T3)
how to manage double images while tracing
with double images, the left side is closer to the film, therefore,there is less magnification and more accuracy on the L side.
distance from source to object midsagital line
5 ft
Basion
Ba

inferior portion of the occiptal bone and the anterior margin of foramen magnum
Articulare
Ar

point of intersection between the basilar portion of the occipital bone and the posterior border of the condylar process
Porion
Po

most superior part of External Auditory Meatus
Sella
S

cenere of pituitary fossa
Nasion
N

most anterior point of frontonasal suture in median plane
Orbitale
Or

lowest point on inferior margin of the left orbit
Posterior Nasal Spin
most posterior aspect of maxilla

marks the intersection of the anterior wall of the pterygopalatine fossa and the floor of the nose
ANS
tip of bong anterior nasal spine
A point
subspinale

point of greatest concavity on midline of maxilla. Between prosthion and ANS
Prosthion
Pr

most anterior and inferior aspect of the alveolar process of the maxilla
infradentale
Id

highest most anterior point on the alveolar process of the mandible
B point
submentale

point of greatest concavity on the midline of the mandibular alveolar process. it lies between the infradentale and the pogonion
Pog
most anterior point of bony chin
Gnathion
Gn

point of intersection between facial plane and mandibular plane
Menton
Me

most inferior point on bony chin
Inferior Go
tangential point of contact of mandibular plane and gonion
Posterior Go
tangential point of contact of ramus plane and gonion
Gonion
point of intersection between ramust and mandibular body
condylion
Co

most superior posterior point on head of condyle
stomion superior
sts

lowest point of vermillion of upper lip
stomion inferior
sti

most superior point of border of lower lip
S-N line
connects sella to nasion

also known as the anterior cranial base
FH
frankfort horizontal line

line connects the porion to the orbitale

horizontal reference plane of the face
Palatal Plane
connects the ANS to PNS
mandibular plane
line from inferior border of mandible at gonion to menton
ANB
SNA-SNB

should be about 2+-2
Esthetic plane
line connecting pronasale to spog`
Y axis
measured to FHLine

goes from sella to gnathion

determine direction of growth of pt

mean is 59degrees +-2

lower than 56 is counterclockwise (horizontal) above 61 is vertical growth
LMT or L6T
mesial cusp tip of man first molar
when tracing, what should be superimposed?
sella tucica to glabella
only time cephlometry can be compared
when cep is taken under exact same conditions
methods for studying growth
1.vital staining
2.metallic implants
3.radiography
describe vital staining
a band of red stain followed by and unstained band
stains/markers used in vital staining
alizarin red
acid alizarin blue
trypan blue
chlorthaizines
procaine
lead acetate
radioactive isotopes
tetracycline
cephalometric equiptment
cephalostat to hold head (ear rods/nasal rest)

film holder

control panel

radiation source
factors that affect cephalometric radiographs
1.kVp
2.mA
3.Exposure time
4.Exposure factors
-age
-weight
-type of film
advantage of vital staining
give something to growing bone undergoing remodeling and depending on how much changing is going on the stain goes to where the remodeling is occouring
gnathostatics
photo technique that related teeth and bony bases each other and to craniofacial structures
who obtained the first xray films of skull by lateral view?
Racini and Carrera
in 1926
who invented the cephalometer?
Broadbend in 1931

allowed practioner to ID problem areas of craniofacial disproportion and devise detailed therapeutic interventions
what does cephalometrics permit?
observation of discrepancies in mandible, maxilla, dental units, and soft tissue profile
primary aim of cephalometric analysis
to localize malocclusion within a tracing of facial bone and soft tissue structures.

the analysis is done by using standardized cephalometric landmarks to construct lines, angles, and imaginery planes which allow linear and angular assesment of dental and facial relationships seen on radiograph
class I
mesiobuccal cusp tip of max first molar align w/buccal groove of man first molar

Class I occlusion demonstrates reasonably normal skeletal and soft tissue profiles
Class II
mesiobuccal cusp tip of max first molar is mesial to buccal groove of man first molar

Class II division I see overjet in ant. pt has downward growth

Class II division II pt has lingual tipping of max ant and square jaw
Class III
mesiobuccal cusp of max first premolar is distal to buccal groove of man first premolar
most common cause of Class III malocclusion
excessive growth of mandible
3 basic facial patterns
1.dolichofacial (vertical)

2.mesofacial

3.brachyfacial(horizontal)
open bit
failure of teeth in both arches to meet properly. observed in posterior or anterior
deep bites
most often see in Class II divison I

becuase of excessive overjet the mandibular incisors supraerupt until they come into contact with hard palate
orthognathism
ideal balance between cranial base, maxilla, and mandible, from sag view
prognathism
ant postioning of jaws in relation to facial skelton and soft tissue
retrognathism
posterior placement of jaw in relation to face
uses of cephalometric radiography
eval dentofaical relationships

seperate treatment from growth changes

understand difference between skeletal and integumentary profile

treatment prediction

anatomical basis of racial differences
Ptm
pterygomaxillary fissure

tear drop shape fissure whose anterior limit is max tuberosity and posterior limit is anterior surface of ptyergoid