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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
does the olfactory nerve have a thalamic relay?
what can primary taste sensation convey about food?
-sweet, sour, salty or bitter
-none of the character of foods
what are the three major projections of CN 1?
-stria medullaris
-stria terminalis
-medial forebrain bundle
how do we test CN 1 function?
-with essential oils or other obvious smells
-only tested if anosmia is a complaint of the patient
do rods or cones have higher sensitivity to light?
info from what half of the retinas cross at the optic cup?
-the medial half
what part of the visual field does meyers loop carry fibers for?
-the superior field
what part of the visual field does the parietal radiation carry fibers for?
-inferior field
what part of the retina does a central scotoma effect?
-the macula
what is the pupillary light reflex pathway?
-optic tract synapses at the pretectal area
-then synapses in the EW nucleus (III)
-these parasymp fibers travel to ciliary ganlion
-then to short ciliary nerves
what presents when someone has an afferent lesion in the pupillary reflex?
-less light is detected on the lesioned side leading to dec constriction in both eyes
what happens in an efferent lesion of the pupillary light reflex?
-get normal constriction in contralateral eye
-but no constriction of the eye on the affected side
what is the near reflex (eyes)?
-pupils constrict when focusing on an object that is close to the person
what are the motor innervations of CN III?
-all mm of the eye except for SO and LR
-parasymp to constrictor pupillae and ciliary muscle via ciliary ganglia
where do the parasympathetics from III originate?
-edinger westphal nuc
what are the typical presentations of a patient with a left IIIrd nerve lesion?
-left eye is looking "down and out" due to unopposed LR and SO
-also left ptosis and dilated left pupil
what are the motor innervations of IV?
-contralateral SO
what two characteristics are exclusive to IV?
-only CN to exit from dorsum on BST
-only CN in which all fibers decussate
what are the typical presentations of a peripheral trochlear nerve lesion?
-ipsilateral effects
-extorsion of eye
-loss of downgaze in medial position
-patients tilt head toward unaffected side to compensate
what are the typical presentations of a central IVth nerve lesion?
-contralateral effects
-extorsion of eye
-loss of downward gaze in medial position
-head tilts toward the side that the BST lesion is on
what ganlion houses the sensory CBs of V?
-tigeminal ganglia
what are the motor innervations of V?
-mm of mastication
-tensor tympani/veli palatini
-ant digastric
where does V exit the BST?
-ventrolateral pons
where do V1 V2 and V3 exit the skull?
-V1 at sup orbital fissure
-V2 at foramen rotundum
-V3 at foramen ovale
what does the mesencephalic nuc of V house?
-primary sensory neurons from from the mm which V innervates
-mediates proprioception for reflex control of chewing
what does the pontine nuc of V house?
-secondary sensory neurons for the face
what does the nuc of the spinal tract of V house?
-pain and temp info for face
what happens in UMN and LMN lesions of V?
-UMN nothing happens due to bilateral cortical innervation
-LMN you get ipsilateral paralysis of mm of mastication
what are the presentations of a VIth nerve lesion?
-ipsilateral LR weakness and diplopia on lateral gaze
-medial deviation of eye (unopposed MR)
where is the VIth nerve nucleus?
-dorsal pons, near midline
what is strabismus?
-inability to direct both eyes simultaneously to one target
what are the rules of diplopia?
-the false image is always the outer one
-false image always comes from the affected eye
where is lateral gaze initiated?
-in the FEF (brodmans 8)
what is the lateral gaze pathway?
-originates in FEF
-fibers cross in pons and innervate PPRF
-excitatory inputs to ipsilateral VIth nuc
-excitatory inputs to contralateral IIIrd nuc
-fibers run in MLF