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125 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
major brain divisions
brain stem
brain stem
medulla oblongata "medulla"
highest portion of brain
supported on the diencephalon and brain stem
largest part of brain
back of brain
post. to brain stem
protective coverings:
*cranial bones
*cranial meninges= pia mater, arachnoid layer, dura mater
periosteal layer
outer layer adheres to cranial bones & functions as the periosteum
meningeal layer
continuous w/ the spinal cord meninge or layer
3 major extensions of dura
*falx cerebri
falx cerebeli
Tentrium cerebelli
falx cerebri
in longutinal fissure
falx cerebeli
Btwn halves of cerebellum
Tentrium cerebelli
In transverse fissure
btwn. occ. lobe and cerebellum
Dura Mater
separates the lobes
outer part of meninges
Periosteal layer
Meningeal layer
cerebrospinal fluid (c.s.f.)
fluid like 80-150 mil. has salts, protiens, glucose, urea, lymphocytes, c02 increased stimulates respiratory center.
major functions c.s.f.
delivers nutrients & useful substance; removes wastes thus protecting neurons & neuroglia cells
protection c.s.f.
acts as shock absorber; delivers nutrients & removes wastes
transport system
increases c02 in c.n.f. is a resp. stimulus; moves nutrients/waste
ventricles (brain cavity)
ventricle little cavity they contain c.s.f.
CSF Flow
Ventricles-Lat. ventricles-Interventricular foramen-Third ventricle-Aqueduct of the midbrain-4th ventricle-median aperture-Subacrnoid space-cen. canal of spinal cord-Lat. aperutre-subarachnoid space
lateral ventricles
lateral cerebral hemispheres
these are not numbered like others
interventricular foramen
(foramen of monroe)
from lateral ventricles to 3rd ventricle
third ventricle
between halves of thalamus; slit- like; surrounds pars intermedia
aqueduct of the midbrain
(cerebral aqueduct or aqueduct of sylvius connects 3rd to 4th ventricle
fourth ventricle
anterior to cerebellum; post. to pons; lead to two aperatures
lateral aperture
(forman of luschka)
carries c.s.f. to subarachnoid space
(same as Med. aperature)
median aperture (foramen of magendie)
carries c.s.f. to subarachnoid psace
subarachnoid space
outside of c.n.s. where c.s.f. reabsorbrption hack into blood
central canal of spn. cord
lined by ependymal cells thus c.s.f. possibly produced
CSF formation
from filtration/secreton of capillary blood
ependymal cells cover these capillaries & produce csf by filtration/secretion
Choroid plexuses
membrane like
in walls of ventricle
these capillaries are covered by ependymal cells
Blood-cerebral spinal barrier
Ependymal cells have "tight junctions" thus blood cannot pass "through" them
Ependymal cells
When capillary blood passes through ______ _____ -csf is formed
line walls of ventricles of brain and spinal cord
CSF reabsorption
gradually reabsorbed into the blood through subarachnoid space and especially through sup. sag. sinus.
Subarachnoid space
Contains csf
Arachnoid villi
Arachnoid villi
Projections of arachnoid membrane into sup. sag. sinus
Superior saggital sinus
The major "dural venous sinus" receiving csf
Brain stem
part of the brain btwn the spinal cord and diencepalon
it consists of 3 parts:
Medulla Oblongata
Medulla Oblongata
Almost all sensory input arises from one side of body and crosses to the opposite side of brain in upper part of spinal cord or _______.
on ventral side of medulla
Decussation of pyramids
Many motor fibers (tracts) pass through _______.
from cerebral cortex to cecussation to opposite side of body
R and L nucleus gracilis
On dorsal side of brain
assoc. with some somatic sensations - eg. touch, vibration, and proprioception
Reticular formation
Consists of dispersed gray and white matter - from spinal cord to diencephalons
has sensory and motor function
Reticular activating system (RAS)
Part of ret. formation
fibers run to cortex
maintains consciousness and functions in awakening from sleep
motor functions help reg. muscle tone
3 vital reflex centers
Cardiac center
Medullary rhymicity area
Vasomotor (vasoconstrictor) center
Other non-vital reflex centers
Non-vital nuclei such as swallowing, vomiting, sneezing, hiccups, coughing, and other occur here
Neurons here relay impulses from proprioreceptors to cerebellum thus help balance and equalibrium
are lateral to pyramids on ventral side of brain
"olive shaped"
Medulla Oblongata
R and L nucleus gracilis
Reticular formation
Reflex centers (vital and Non-vital)
Associated w/ cranial nerves VIII-XII
Consists of both nuclei and tracts that connect brain parts with each other
ap. "1" above medulla and ant. to cerebellum
means bridge
Significant nuclei in reticular formation
help reg. breathing
Pneumontaxic area
Apneustic area
Pneumontaxic area
Apneustic area
Ass. with cranial nerves V-VIII
Midbrain (mesencephalon)
From pons to lower part of diencephalons
ap. "1"
cerebral aqueduct passes through it
has tracts (white mater) and nuclei (gray mater)
Midbrain (mesencephalon)
Ventral portion- cerebral peduncles
Dorsal portion- Corpora quadrigemma
Substantia nigra
Red nucleus
Ass. with cranial nerves III-IV
Ventral portion of midbrain
Front part of midbrain
Consists of Cerbral peduncles
Cerbral peduncles
are motor tracts that conn. cerebrum to sp. cord, medulla ad pons
also sensory tracts that run from medulla to thalamus
Dorsal portion (tectum)of midbrain
Back part of midbrain
Consists of Corpora quadregemina, Sup. Colliculi, and Inf. Colliculi
means roof
Corpora quadregemina
entire term means body of 4 twins
both are reflex centers for eye, ear, head and trunk
Substantia nigra
Large black nuclei
control subconsious muscle movements
Red nucleus
Rich blood supply and iron pigment
Coordinate muscle movements
"through brain"
80% of diencephalon
Faired oval masses of mostly gray matter
usually joined by "intermediate mass" - a.k.a. pars intermedia or interthalamic adhesion
Forms lateral wall of third ventricle
Some nuclei act as "relay stations" for sensory impulses - except smell - to cerebral cortex
Interpretation center for some sensory impulses -eg. pain, temp., and light touch
below thalamus
divided into 4 regions:
1 region, the mammilary, contains the mammillary bodies, another, the tuberal contains infundibulum
Received sensory info about external internal environment
Monitors hunger, temp., hormone levels and water concentration
Exerts control over pituitary gland
Emotional intergration: associated with feelings of rage and aggression
Control and integration of A.N.S.
Above the thalamus
Consists of Pineal gland
Pineal gland (epiphysis cerebri)
secretes hormone melatonin and is thus an endocrine gld. - promotes sleepiness and biol. clock?
Under thalamus
Other nuclei work with it to control body movements
Associated with rational thought, problem solving, etc.
Cerebral cortex
2-4 mm. thick
ap. 6 layers gray mater
ap. 5 billion cells
Cerebral white matter
Below gray mater
Folds or high points (ridges)
Sulci (grooves)
Low points - btwn. or separates grooves
Deeper than grooves
Larger areas (regions) defined by sulci or fissures
Rt. and Lt.
separated by longitudinal fissure
Longitudinal fissures
sep. R and L hemispheres
Corpus callosum
Conn. R. and L. hemispheres
consists of white matter tracts
Means "tough body"
Falx cerebri
One of the three major cranial dura
extends into the longitudinal fissure
Central sulcus (fissure of rolando)
Sep. frontal from parietal lobes
Frontal Lobe
Consists of precentral gyrus
precentral gyrus
Ant. to central sulcus
is a primary motor area
Parietal lobe
consists of Postcentral gyrus
Postcentral gyrus
Post. to central sulcus
is a primary sensory area
Frontal lobe
front part of the brain
sides of the brain
Temporal lobe
nears the temples on head
Parietoccipital sulcus
sep. parietal and occipital lobes
Transverse fissure
Btwn. occipital lobe of cerebrum and cerebellum
occupied by the cranial dura called the "tentorium cerebelli"
Insula (isle of reil or island)
Lies deep in lateral central sulcus
function is NOT KNOWN
White matter
Deep to gray matter in cortex
has myelinated and unmyelinated fibers
fibers pass in one of three major directions
Association fibers
Conn. gyri in the same hemisphere
Commissural fibers
Conn. gyri in one hemisphere with corresponding gyri in the opposite hemisphere
Corpus callosum
Conn. R and L cerebral hemispheres
Ant. commissure
going across the front of the brain
Post. commissure
going across the back of the brain
Projection fibers
Form ascending and descending tracts, conn. cortex with the cerebrum and thalamus, brain stem and spinal cord
Basal ganglia (cerebral nuclei)
Paired masses of nuclei - gray mater - in each, hemisphere some functions include muscle movement
many connections to cortex, thalamus, and hypothalamus
Corpus striatum
Largest of basal ganglia
straited body
Caudate nucleus Lentiform nucleus
Globus pallidus
Part of internal capsule
They conn. to basal ganglia and are sometimes considered a part of it.
Substantia nigra
Subthalamic nucleus
Red nucleus
Limbic system
The "visceral" or "emotional" brain
has components in the cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon
Many of its components consist of gray matter
Wishbone shape
encircle brain stem
Functions in memory and emotional behavior related to survival
Functions in pleasure, pair, rage, fear, sexual feelings and docility
Cerebral cortex function
Sensory Area
Motor area
Association Area
Sensory Area (cerebral cortex)
Receives, interprets sensory impulses
located post. to central sulcus or in post half of cerebral hemispheres
Primary sensory area
Primary visual area
Primary auditory area
Primary gustatory area
Primary olfactory area
Motor area (cerebral cortex)
Initiate movements
areas esp. ant. to central sulcus
Primary motor areas
Broca's speech area
Association Area (cerebral cortex)
Integrate, interpret and allow for complex functions: eg. emotions, memory, intelligence, personality traits...
Primary motor areas (cerebral cortex)
Located ant. to central sulcus in precentral gyrus of frontal lobe
Controls specific muscle
Broca's speech area
Language is complex - involves, sensory, motor, and association areas
97% of pop. has this area in the L hemisphere
other language areas occur in the brain
translates thought into spoken words (speech)
Frontal eyefield area
For scanning movements eg. looking up word in dictionary
Brain lateralization (split-brain concept)
Also called "hemispheric lateralization"
demonstrates that few structures/functions not equally divided in hemispheres
L handed people
Parietal and Occipital lobes of R hemisphere usually narrower than corresponding lobes of the L
Frontal lobe of the hemisphere usually narrower than R hemisphere
L hemisphere
Spoken and written language
Scientific - mathematical skills
R hemisphere
L hand control
Musical - artistic skills or awareness
Associated with cranial nerves I-II
second largest part of brain
1/10 brain mass
Transverse fissure
Tentorium cerebelli
R and L hemispheres
Ant. Lobe
Post. Lobe
Flocculonodular lobe
Falx cerebelli
Transverse fissure
Sep. cerebrum from cerebellum
has "tentorium cerebelli"-one of the three dural folds
Tentorium cerebelli
Cranial dura that extends into the above fissure
"Worm shaped" -connects cerebellar hemispheres
Ant. Lobe
Post. Lobe
produce subconscious skeletal muscle movements
Floculonodular lobe
For equilibrium
Falx cerebelli
Another major dural fold
lies btwn. cerebellar folds over vermis
Of gray mater
External folds (raised) of gray mater
White matter tracts arbor vitae
Beneath gray matter
"tree of life"
Cerebellar nuclei
Masses of gray mater
like cerebrum, they occur in white mater- in this case= the arbor vitae
Cerebellum peduncles
All three connect cerebellum to brain stem
Cerebellum (FUNCTIONS)
Muscular coordination of complex actions
Recerive sensory input regarding balance, posture and movement
Helps maintain posture and balance