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34 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Osteology: Fossa of cranium
1. anterior-houses frontal lobes
2. middle-temporal lobes
3. posterior-brain stem, cerebellum
bones of Interior skull and fossa:
1. frontal bone
2. ethmoid bone-"sieve"
3. sphenoid bone-"wedged between"
4. temporal bone-"time"
5. parietal bone
6. occipital bone
Fossa boundaries:
1. anterior: anterior portion of frontal bone constructs anterior part of anterior fossa; posterior line is lesser wing of sphenoid; includes the ethmoid
2. middle: anterior border is lesser wing of sphenoid; posterior border is petrous ridge of temporal bone; includes parietal bone
3. posterior: extends from petrous ridge to back of the skull (occipital)
Major Landmarks:
Crista galli
"comb of the cock"
**protrusion of ethmoid
**attachment of a specialization of intracranial dura mater
olfactory foramina
*perpendicular plate of ethmoid for passage of minute CN I fibers from nasal cavity
*CNI-made of ~20 filaments and pass thru cribiform plate of ethmoid
superior orbital fissure
*slit between lesser and greater wings of sphenoid
*conveys structures between orbit and cranium
optic foramen
**medial to SOF
**optic nerve (CNII) and ophthalmic artery
Sella Turcica
*posterior to optic foramen in midline
*depression in sphenoid
*houses pituitary gland
foramen rotundum
foramen ovale
foramen spinosum
*entrance for middle meningeal artery
Carotid Canal
**posterior-medial to sphenoid bone in the petrous temporal bone
**ICA enters cranium
**interal carotid nerve plexus
foramen lacerum
*in vivo, filled with connective tissue
*post-mortem, just foramen
Internal Auditory Meatus
**posterior to carotid canal
Jugular foramen
*posterior to IAM
*pseudoforamen formed by occipital and petrous portion of temportal bone
Hypoglossal canal
**medial to jugular foramen
Foramen Magnum
*largest foramen of skull
*vertebral arteries ascend
*brain stem becomes spinal cord
Clinoid processes of sella turcica
1. anterior: tuberculum sellae associated with it; anterior to concavity of sella turcica
2. posterior: lateral extension of posterior portion of sella turcica called dorsum sellae
Grooves of skull
1. middle meningeal artery, branch of maxillary, supplying skull and dura Mater
2. venous sinuses and arachnoid granulations
Infant Skull
1. Fontanelles: i)anterior-largest, diamond shaped; allows aspiration of fluid to test for infections; ii)posterior fontanelles; iii)anteriolateral (sphenoidal); iv)posteriolateral (mastoid)
2. parietal eminence
3. incomplete sutures and fontanelles serve 2 purposes:
a)brain is developing
b)allows passage thru birth canal
Fibrous sutures:
1. coronal
2. sagittal
3. lambdoid
*lambda-jnctn of sagittal and lambdoid
*bregma-jnctn of sagittal and coronal
*parietal foramina lateral to sagittal suture allow emissary veins to pass
*fusion of occipital and sphenoid bones
*looks like a slide
*brain stem lies just posterior
From Skull to Brain:
1. Calvaria
**2 layers (outer and inner tables) around a diploic space
**emissary veins communicate between veins in scalp and diploic space
**blood flows inside to outside
2. Dura Mater
2 layers:
1. periosteal/endostial (outer)
2. meningeal, continuous with dura mater of spinal cord (inner)
**between 2 layers are dural venous sinuses, lined endothelium
**can also lie between 2 meningeal layers
**subdural hematoma
Middle Meningeal Artery within dura mater
*supplies mostly bone but some dura
*bifurcates in middle cranial fossa to form: anterior and posterior branches
*laceration of MM artery=acute epidural hematoma
*epidural space is a potential space in brain, so anything in there is pathologic
3. Arachnoid trabeculae
*send fist-like projections (granulations)into dura mater
4. subarachnoid space
*CSF-turns over rapidly (1/3CC per minute); filtered through venous system; enters dural sinus thru; arachnoid granulatons and recirculated
**CSF made primarily deep in brain by choroid plexuses
5. pia mater
*only on cortex of brain
*continues into sulci
*arterial blood vessels lie superior to pia
Specializaton of Dura Mater
1. falx cerebri-separates left and right brain; arises posteriorly from tentorium cerebelli and attaches forward to frontal bone and crista galli
2. tentorium cerebelli-Houses the cerebellum
Dural Venous Sinuses
a. superior sagittal
b. left and right transverse
c. straight sinus-jnctn of falx cerebri and tentorium cerebelli
d. inferior sagittal
e. cavernous sinus
f. petrosal sinuses
g. sigmoid-S shaped, arise from transverse sinuses to become IJV
h. sphenoparietal-under edge of lesser wing
i. basilar-plexus running on clivus
j. midline occipital
k. marginal-runs around foramen magnum; while lying down, drainage via IJV; while standing, drains into marginal plexus and then onto Batson's plexus
**all sinuses drain into IJV
Cavernous sinus
**only place where artery traverse a vein
**pituitary in center
**ICA looks like 2 lumen but not
**basilar skull fraction-ICA lacerated: introduces high pressure arterial blood which reverse flow of venous blood (Carotid Cavernous Fistula); *pulsing eyeball
Triangle of Danger
*facial veins can drain back, via superior and inferior ophthalmic veins, into cavernous sinus
1. Trigeminal (CNV) innervates dura mater, primarily in anterior and middle fossas
2. CNX and cervical nerves that travel along route of CNXII innervate posterior fossa
*explains why neck injuries can result in headaches
Arterial Supply:
Circle of Willis
1. Left and Right ICAs
2. L and R vertebral aa
*vertebral arteries fuse into basilar artery on clivus
*basilar bifurcates into posterior cerebrals; connect to middle cerbral aa via posterior communicating artery
*2 anterior cerbrals joined by anterior communicating artery
***25% does not have circle, so stroke would be devastating