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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
How do most learning theorist explain learning?
Theorist explain learning as a process tha mediates behavior, that there is some underlying mechanism that explain how learning occurs.
What is the basic definition od Applied Behavior Analysis.
The application of behavior princeples to personal and social problems in the world.
What is the basic assumption of Behavior Analysis.
We do what we do because of what happens to us - meaning we do what we do because of the consequences of out behavior.
What are the two types of learning associated with behavior analyis?
Classical Conditioning and Operant conditioning.
What is an unconditioned stimulus. What does it cost?
A stimulus which involuntary elicits an unconditioned response. I.E. food cause salivation
What is a Neutral Stimulus? Initially what is the effect of it's presentation?
a stimulus that does not cause any behavior to occur. Initially it cause nothing.
What is a Conditioned Stimulus? What is it's relationship to a Neutral Stimulus?
a previously neutral stimulus is paired with an unconditioned stimulus which produces an unconditioned response. The neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus when it can porduce a response.
What is the relationship between an Unconditioned Response and a Conditioned Response?
the conditioned response is the response that is illicited when a stimulus is presented. (the food was the unconditioned stimuls, ell is conditioned stimulus.
What is the sequence of conditioning in the Classical Conditioning process?
US when presented intially causes UR

NS/CS when presented initially causes nothing (NS repeatedly paired with US, the NS becomes CS)

CS when presented causes CR
What is the ABC model of Operant Conditioning?
A= Antecedent
B= Behavior
C= Consequence
What are antecedents?
events or stimuli that occur before the behavior. They are also Discriminative stimuli.
What are discriminative stimuli?
stimuli that indicate the probability of a particular type of consequence that occurs following a behavior.
What are consequences?
What happens after a behavior has occured.
Define positive, negative, and neutral consequences.
Positive: consequences that we like ( food, money)
Negative: consequences that we do not like (beign yelled at)
Neutral: consequences that we do not care about.
Consequences can be either ________ or ________ following a behvior.
presented or removed
What are the 4 types of consequence procedures (Figure 1.0)
1. positive reinforcement
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Type I punishment
4. Type II punishment
What is positive reinforcement?
a positive consequence that increases a behavior
How do you know that a consequence was a positive reinforcer?
The behavior will increase.
What is negative reinforcement?
The removal of a negative consequence following a behavior that increases the occurrence of the behavior.
What is Type I Punishment?
AKA: presentation punishment or positive punishment)

the presentation of a negative consequence, following the behavior, that decreases the occurrence of the behavior.
What is Type II Punishment?
AKA: removal punishment or negative punishment

the removal of a positive consequence that results in a decrease in behavior.
What is escape conditioning?
example of negative reinforcement. An aversive stimulus is presented and you do something to escape the consequence.
How is avoidance conditioning different from escape conditioning?
Avoidance conditioning requires a discriminative stimulus to be added to become a negative reinforcer. Here the organism can avoid the negative consequence by engaging in another response (redirection instead of escape)
What 2 consequences increase behavior?
Positive and negative reinforcement
What 2 consequences decrease behavior?
Type I, or positive, punishment and Type II, or negative, punishment.
Why do we say that consequences are defined by their effect on the behavior?
Did it increase or decreasethe behavior
What is the effect of a neutral consequence on behavior?
they have no effect on the rate of behavior
What is the key tennant of Proactive Programming?
For every excessive behavior there is a corresponding deficit behavior.
teach people what to do as opposed to what not to do. Teaches functional skills by utilizing the principles of positive reinforcement.
Why shouldn't we use punishment procedures?
Because punishment tells you what not to do, however, it never tells you what you should do.
What are the 6 characteristics of Proactive staff?
1. Knows the individuals past
2. Knows the individuals present
3. Knows the individuals future
4. Knows the agency
5. Is a professional not an employee
6. Works for and with the person