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208 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
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Abraham Maslow, one of the best-known contributors to human relations theory, was a psychologist who observed that his patients' problems often stemmed from an inability to satisfy their needs. What theory did Maslow develop to help with this need?
Maslow's Heirarchy of Needs
p. 4 2 b.
What theory focused on employee motivation?
Herzberg's Motivation-Hygiene Theory
p. 4 b 2
Who believed in total quality as a constant standard for industry & advocated the use of statistical measures to track quality?
W. Edwards Deming
p. 6 c
How many series of rules did Deming establish that were the very essense of the total quality management movement?
14 Principles
p. 6 c 2
What act prohibits pay differences based on gender?
The Equal Pay Act
p. 50 7 a
What legislation prohibits employers with 15 or more employees from implementing personnel practices that discriminate on the basis of race, color, gender, national origin or religion?
The Civil Rights Acts of 1964
p. 50 7 b
What act established the requirements for an employer to pay employees a minimum wage & time-and-a-half for overtime worked over 40 hrs. per week?
Fair Labor Standards Act
p. 72 A 1
What act was an amendment to the Fair Labor Standards Act & required equal pay for women who are performing work substantially equal to that performed by men?
Equal Pay for Equal Work Act
p. 72 A f
What act applies to workers 40 & over?
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
p. 80 3
What legislation requires employers who participate in government contracts to make reasonable accommodation to employ & to promote qualified individuals with special needs?
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
p. 81 4
What does ERISA stand for?
Employee Retirement Income Security Act. It was passed to better regulate pension plans.
p. 74 4
What is another name for Social Security?
FICA
p. 74 3
What legislation is administered by OSHA to ensure safe workplaces for employees?
Occupational Safety & Health Act.
p. 75 5
What legislation prohibits discrimination in any form of employment based on race, color, religion, gender, national origin.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
p. 78 1
What is the name of a form of sexual harassment that involves some personnel action made dependent on sexual favors?
Quid Pro Quo Defense
p. 78 5 a.
In very limited situations, what legislation allows businesses to legally discriminate on the basis of gender, national origin, or religion?
Bona Fide Occupational Qualifications (BFOQs)
p. 79 c
What legislation applies to all workers 40 and over?
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA)
p. 80 3
What legislation requires employers who participate in gov't. contracts to make reasonable accommodations to employ & to promote qualified individuals with special needs?
Rehabilitation Act of 1973
p. 81 4
What legislation is an extension of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to cover the physically & mentally disabled, including AIDS patients, cancer patients, & treated, recovering substance abusers?
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
p. 81 5
What legislation granted the opportunity for family & temporary medical leave for employees who meet the qualifications?
The Family & Medical Leave Act of 1993 (FMLA)?
p. 82 6
What does the NLRA stand for?
The National Labor Relations Act.
p. 84 C 1
What act was the first comprehensive federal labor legislation?
The Wagner Act (1935)
p. 84 C 2
What legislation was a combination of the Wagner & the Taft-Hartley Acts?
The NLRA
p. 84 3
What legislation deals with the internal operation & management of unions & establishes specific union member rights?
Landrum-Griffin Act (1959)
p. 85 4
What is the process called by which the management of the firm & the representatives of the employee's union come to an agreement regarding a work contract?
Collective Bargaining
p. 86 9
Who settles disputes on collective bargaining agreements?
Arbitrator
p. 87 10
What is typically defined as any action directed toward an employee for failing to follow organizational policies, procedures, or rules?
Discipline
p. 89 D 1
What is another name for a resignation, layoff, dismissal, or retirement?
Separation
p. E 1
Employees without a contract subject to fire any worker were known as _____-__-_____.
Employees-at-will
p. 94 F 1
A _____ _____ is a detailed study of a job to determine the exact nature of the work, the quantity, & quality of output that is expected, working conditions of the job, & necessary personal qualities such as knowledge, skill, & ability specific to the functions of the position.
Job Analysis
p. 106 A 1.
The job _____ must be in writing & accurately describe job duties & activities.
Description
p. 106 A 2
The job _____ outlines the education, experience, training, & personal attributes that are required for successful performance.
Specifications
p. 106 A 3
What is the process called of breaking work down into its constituent elements?
Task Analysis
p. 107 4
What is a carefully designed program for appraising the value of jobs & obtaining an equitable pay relationship among them called?
Job Evaluation
p. 108 5
The needs _____ determines the training requirements of the organization.
Assessment
p. 109 B 3
_____ is the process of providing the opportunity for individuals to acquire knowledge, skills, & attitudes required in their present jobs.
Training
p. 109 B 1
What does OJT stand for?
On-the-job training
p. 111 7
_____ are used to train individuals in multiple locations simultaneously through video and audio-conferencing.
Teleconferences
p. 112 8
_____ is aimed toward improving an employee's competence for possible job opportunities in the future.
Development
p. 115 1
In Kirkpatrick's Method of Evaluating Training Programs, he utilizes what 4 distinct & related hierarchical levels of evaluation?
Reaction, Learning, Behavior, & Results
p. 117 D 3
What are 4 key questions to ask when evaluating the training process?
Is it realistic? Is it measurable? Is it attainable? Does it stretch?
p. 117 D 3
What legislation is also known as the Wage & Hour Law, & covers practically every type of business, sets the minimum wage, & requires that all work in excess of 40 hrs. per week be paid at 1.5 X their regular rate?
The Fair Labor Standards Act
p. 132 3 a
What legislation states that discrimination on the basis of sex is illegal?
The Equal Pay Act of 1963
p. 132 3 b
What legislation provides monthly benefits to insured personnel & their dependents in the event of retirement, disability, or death & provides health insurance to persons 65 & over?
Federal Social Security Act (Both employees & employers contribute to Social Security)
p. 133 B 1 a
What legislation provides benefits for injured workers or their dependents regardless of who is at fault?
Workers' Compensation Laws
P. 133 B 1 b
What legislation provides up to 12 weeks of unpaid leave during a 1-year period for 3 reasons: birth or placement for adoption or foster care of a child; a serious health condition of a spouse, child, or parent; or the employee's own serious health condition?
Family & Medical Leave Act
p. 133 B 1 d
What does CFR stand for?
Code of Federal Regulation
p. 138 6 b 2
What does the Code of Federal Regulation identify?
Which records must be kept & how long they must be kept.
p. 138 6 b
A _____ record is one that can be trusted as full & accurate.
Reliable
p. 139 7 a 1
An _____ record is proven to be what it purposts to be, & is shown to be created by the person who actually created it.
Authentic
p. 139 7 a 2
What is growing as the Internet becomes a prime source for all types of business transactions?
Electronic business (e-business)
p. 139
Explain the stable dollar concept.
The stable dollar concept assumes that a dollar today is worth the same amount as a dollor used to buy an asset in the past.
p. 153 3
What does GAAP stand for?
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles.
p. 153 2 a 1
What is a set of rules that govern the format of the financial statements & the method of recording the data summarized within them.
Generally Accepted Accounting Principles
p. 153 2 a 1
What is the going-concern assumption?
It states that the accountant assumes that the entity is going to exist for an indefinite period of time.
p. 154 3 a
Which side of the accounting entry is a debit recorded?
Left side; always entered first
p. 156 B 1 b
Which side of the accounting entry is a credit recorded?
Right side
p. 156 B 1 b
What is the owners' equity equation?
Owners' Equity = Total Assets - Total Liability
p. 157 2 c
What is the assets equation?
Assets=Liabilities + Owners' Equity
p. 158 3
What is the net income equation?
Revenues - Expenses = Net Income or Net Loss
p. 160 c
What does FICA stand for?
Federal Insurance Contiributions Act
p. 197 2 b
What is another name for Medicare Tax?
Federal Hospital Insurance
p. 197 2 c
Who is responsible for paying the Medicare Tax?
Both the employer & employee must pay this tax at the rate of 1.45% of the employee's total compensation.
p. 197 2 c
What does FUTA stand for?
Federal Unemployment Tax Act
p. 198 c 2
Who is responsible for paying the Federal Unemployment Insurance Tax?
Employers - no portion is deducted from the employee's pay for this tax.
p. 198 c 2
Who is responsible for paying for the State Unemployment Tax?
Employee pays a lower amt., employer pays the majority of the tax.
p. 198 e 3
How often must a business file statements with the government showing the amounts withheld from employee's earnings for federal income taxes & FICA taxes?
Quarterly
p. 199 h
How is taxable income calculated?
Income - Adjustments to Income = Adjusted Gross Income (AGI) - Personal & Dependency exemptions - Itemized deductions or standard deductions (whichever is greater) = Taxable Income
p. 200 4
What is another name for franchises when one party allows or licenses another party to use the licensor's trade name, trademarks, commercial symbols, copyrights, & other property in the distribution & selling of goods & services?
Licensing Agreements
p. 202
Property owners may rent property to others; which type of contract is this called?
Lease
p. 203 6
What type of leases are usually short-term & give the lessee the right to use the asset for a given time, but the lessor retains ownership & all its risks & rewards?
Operating leases (large copiers, etc. - won't get equipment @ the end of the lease).
p. 203 6 b
What leases are long-term & non-cancelable?
Capital leases (can keep equipment @ the end of the lease)
p. 203 6 c
What does UCC stand for?
Uniform Commercial Code
p. 204 7 b
What are 5 elements of a contract?
Legality, Mutuality of agreement, Consideration, Capacity of parties, & Form required by law.
p. 204, 205 7 c
What so-called contract is not a contract in the true sense because there is no mutual assent?
Quasi-contract
p. 205 e
What type of contract is accepted by performance of the requested act, not by a return promise?
Unilateral Contract
p. 205 e 2
What type of contract involves an exchange of promises?
Bilateral Contract
p. 205 e 3
What type of contract is expressed by their conduct instead of by their words?
Implied Contract
p. 205 e 4
What is the movement of monies called from one country to another?
International Finance
p. 213 d
What is an international summary statement of all economic and financial trans
actions between one country & the rest of the world for one year?
Balance of Payments
p. 213 d 1
What is the name of the tax that allows for the sale of goods in a country?
Tariffs
p. 215 e 1
What type of tarriffs are based on the value of the commodity?
Ad valorem Tarriffs
p. 215
Another form of commercial policy to restrict the amount of international trade is the _____
Quota
p. 216 2
What is a unique form of quota that states no unit of a particular commodity can be imported or, in some case, exported?
Embargo
p. 216 2 c.
What is the asset equation?
Assets = Liabilities + Owners' Equity
p. 234 A 1
The allowance for uncollectible accounts is a _____ _____ account.
Contra-Asset Account
p. 236 3
True or false: Contra-asset accounts are shown as deductions from their related asset accounts on the balance sheet.
True
p. 236 3
What is a basis inventory cost-flow assumption for FIFO?
First-In, First-Out
p. 236 4 a
What is the basis inventory cost-flow assumption for LIFO?
Last-In, First-Out
p. 238
What is the systematic & rational allocation of the original cost of an asset over its expected useful life?
Depreciation
p. 239 3 b
What is determined by dividing net income after taxes by the average # of shares of common stock held by owners during the period?
Earnings Per Share
p. 248 c
What tool shows the changes in retained earnings from one period to another?
Statement of Retained Earnings
p. 249 4
How is the current ratio expressed?
Current Assets
______________
Current Liabilities
p. 256 b 1 a
What is the name for a detailed plan that shows a proposed acquisition of financial resources & uses of financial resources during a period of time?
A Budget
p. 263 B 1
_____ costs vary in total directly with the level of output.
Variable Costs
p. 268 2 b 1
_____ costs remain constant in total despite changes in the volume of output.
Fixed costs
p. 268 2 b 2
_____ costs vary with level of activity but by less than a proportionate amount.
Mixed costs
p. 269 3
The _____ _____ is the point where total revenues are equal to the total expenses & net income is equal to zero.
Breakeven Point
p. 269
What are the differences of Efficiency vs. Effectiveness?
Efficiency is doing things right; however not necessarily a product of good time management. Effectiveness is doing the right things at the right time, the focus of good time management.
p. 294
What is a Short-Term Goal?
They are goals to be achieved within the next year.
p. 297 C e 1
What is an Intermediate Goal?
Goals to be achieved within the next 1-5 years. They may be steps to long-term goals.
p. 207 C e 2
What are Long-Term Goals?
Goals to be accomplished in five years or more. These goals should be revisited annually & revise as needed.
p. 298 C e 3
What is another name for the Pareto Principle?
80/20 Rule
p. 298 3
Explain the Pareto Principle (80/20 rule).
20% of the time spent on certain tasks will produce 80% of final results, while 80% of the time spent on other tasks will produce only 20% of final output.
p. 298 3
What is the process called of translating communication into an understandable message, utilizing appropriate symbols, before it is transmitted?
Encoding
p. 318 1 a.
The connecting device between sender (source) & receiver through which the message passes is the _____.
Channel
p. 318 1 c.
Anything that interferes with the communication process is called _____.
Noise
p. 318 1
The process by which the receiver interprets the meaning(s) of the message is known as _____.
Decoding
p. 319 e.
The term _____ refers to the degree to which messages & meanings that are sent are clear, precise, & understandable, providing a long-lasting record of what is being transmitted.
Clarity
p. 320 1
The amount of immediate information that the source gets back regarding the receiver's acceptance, decoding, & interpretation of the materials & meaning that were sent is known as _____.
Feedback
p. 320 2
The _____ principle is used when people at the same or different levels communicate directly with each other without going through supervisors.
Gangplank
p. 322 1 c.
What is the purpose of the grapevine?
It fills the gap left open when formal organization members do not explain things that are or may be occurring, such as possible plant closings, promotions, terminations, new product developments, & work rule changes.
p. 322 2 a
How accurate does the grapevine tend to be?
From 70% to 90% accuracy.
p. 322 2 a.
What is the amount of space called between two people?
Proxemics
p. 325 2
What is the proxemics called when the presence of the other person is so close & overwhelming as to cause strong feelings? This personal space is reserved for closest friends & family.
Intimate
p. 325 2 a
What proxemics is 1/2' to 4' zone of personal space, often referred to as an "arm's distance"?
Casual or personal
p. 325 2 b
What proxemics is typically 4'-12' & generally used with strangers?
Social
p. 325 2 c.
What proxemics apply when individuals find themselves outside the circle of possible involvement?
Public
p. 325 2 d.
When introducing a lower-ranking person & a higher-ranking person, who should you present to whom?
The lower-ranking person should be introduced to a higher-ranking person, regardless of age or sex.
p. 332 c
Using dining etiquette, when does the meal begin?
When the host unfolds his or her napkin.
p. 333 f 1
Using dining etiquette, what signal means that the meal is over?
When the host places his or her napkin on the table.
p. 333 f 1
What is the pattern of physical cues, environmental stimuli, & understanding that conveys meaning between two individuals of the same culture?
Cultural Context
p. 335 b 1
The allowance for uncollectible accounts is a _____ _____ _____.
Contra-asset account
p. 236
What is the systematic and rational allocation of the original cost of an asset over its expected useful life called?
Depreciation
p. 238
What is determined by dividing net income after taxes by the average number of shares of common stock held by owners during the period?
Earnings per share
p. 248
What shows the retained earnings from one period to another?
Statement of retained earnings.
p. 249
_____ costs vary in total directly with the level of output.
Variable (Raw materials are an example of a variable cost.)
p. 268
_____ costs remain constant in total despite of changes in the volume of output.
Fixed
p. 268
_____ costs vary with the level of activity but by less than a proportionate amount.
Mixed (i.e. electricity)
p. 269
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is on the Internet to ______.
Download data
p. 311
Bias results when appraisers base their ratings on personal characteristics rather than on activities or job-related tasks performed by the employee. What is this called?
Halo-horn effect
p. 58
Explain Douglas McGregor's Theory Y.
People liked work, welcomed responsibilities, & wanted to show their merit.
p. 17
Explain Douglas McGregor's Theory X.
People were lazy, disliked work, shirked responsibility, only responded to coercive treatment & money to achieve results on the job.
p. 16
Who is known as the Father of Office Management?
William Leffingwell
p. 3
Who was the originator of administrative principles?
Henri Fayol. (He identified specific functions of managers as planning, organizing, activating, & controlling)
p. 3
Who is known as the Father of Scientific Management?
Frederick W. Taylor
p. 2
Who established a series of 14 rules regarding the achievement & maintenance of quality within any organization?
W. Edwards Deming
p. 6
_____ is the process of achieving objectives through the use of people & other resources (capital, land, & equipment).
Management
p. 7
What is the most important & basic management function?
Planning
p. 7
What is the basic purpose for an organization's existence?
Mission
p. 7
What is TQM?
Total quality movement
p. 6
What is the assignment of the authority to perform work, to manage the work of others, or to make decisions on behalf of the organization called?
Delegation
p. 11
The term _____ is defined simply as the right to command, the right to exercise the legitimate powers vested in the person by the organization?
Authority
p. 11
What are a few of Frederick Herzberg's hygiene factors?
Working conditions, pay, job security
p. 17
What are a few of Frederick Herzberg's motivational factors?
Recognition, achievement, work itself
p. 17
The _____ process consists of measuring actual performance, comparing that performance to standards established during the planning process, & then taking corrective action if necessary.
Controlling
p. 19
_____ is the process of sharing ideas in such a way that others will understand & be able to use the transmitted information.
Communicating
p. 21
_____ are general statements developed by top management & communicated to managers & supervisors so they can make consistent decisions in handling certain anticipated problems.
Policies
p. 22
_____ _____ _____ means following the rules or steps of logical thinking in resolving a dilemma or making a choice.
Rational decision making
p. 27
A workplace where frequent sexual innuendo jokes are permitted and/or tolerated may result in a _____ working environment.
Hostile
p. 79
Dividing net income after taxes by the average number of shares on common stock held by owners during the period refers to to what?
Earnings per share
p. 248
Name a few Time Wasters.
Misjudging time, oversocializing, lack of delegation, telephone calls, meetings, procrastination, lack of objectives or goals.
p. 296
What is a graphic aid that allows management to plan and control operations more efficiently.
Gantt Chart
p. 2
What is the most important and basic management function?
Planning
p. 7
Plans of a broad, long-term nature, known as _____ _____ guide the operations of the organization. These plans are province of upper-level management.
Strategic Plans
p. 8
Plans of an intermediate nature, tactical plans, help achieve the broad objectives specified in the strategic plans, _____ _____ include specific actions to be taken to achieve objectives and are the responsibility of middle-level managers.
Tactical Plans
p. 8
Plans of a specific nature that are developed and implemented by first-line managers to conduct day-to-day activities are called _____ _____.
Operational Plans
p. 8
Plans that can be of any duration and that are developed to help an organization cope with any unforeseen events that may arise are referred to as _____ _____.
Contingency Plans
p. 8
A _____ is a set, or sequence, of steps to be followed in performing a specific task or action.
Procedure
p. 9
_____ is determining what tasks need to be done, who will do these tasks, how tasks will be grouped, who will report to who, and where decisions will be made.
Organizing
p. 10
The assignment of the authority to perform work, to manage the work of others, or to make decisions on behalf of the organization is called _____.
Delegation
p. 10
The term _____ is defined simply as the right to command, the right to exercise the legitimate powers vested in the person by the organization.
Authority
p. 11
The _____ is a duty or obligation to perform any assigned duties.
Responsibility
p. 11
_____ involves the use of the communication process by a manager to guide, motivate, influence, & direct other people's work efforts toward achievement of organizational objectives with maximum efficiency and minimum waste of resources.
Leading
p. 11
_____ power is the power a leader has because of his or her position in the organization.
Legitimate
p. 15
_____ power is the power of the leader to punish or control.
Coercive
p. 15
_____ power is the power to give benefits or rewards.
Reward
p. 15
_____ power is based on the manager's expertise, special skill, or knowledge. Employees do as you direct because they know you are credible.
Expert
p. 15
_____ power is the power that some managers possess because employees admire & identify with them & want to please them.
Referent
p. 15
The U.S. Internal Revenue Code defines _____ _____ as any property a taxpayer holds that is not listed in Section 1221.
Capital Assets
p. 201
The _____ of _____ _____ explains the differences between the beginning and ending balances of cash (including cash equivalents).
Statement of Cash Flows
p. 250
_____ is the receiver's response to the message.
Feedback
p. 319
_____ communication is the process of sharing information without the use of words.
Nonverbal Communications
p. 323
Sounds that may be used to express words is called _____
Paralanguage
p. 363
What was the earliest studies (theory) of management called that focused on workforce efficiency?
Classical Management Theory
p 2
Which management theory is a more modern approach & believed that workers' human needs had to be placed above or, at least, equal to organizational goal accomplishment.
Human Relations Management Theory
p. 3
What management theory is the study of human behavior in organizations?
Behavioral Science Approach
p. 5
Name a few 'fathers' of the Classical Management Theory.
Frederick Taylor (Father of Scientific Management; Henry Gantt (Gantt Chart); William Leffinwell (Father of Office Management)
p. 2 & 3
Name a few 'fathers' of the Human Relations Management Theory.
Abraham Maslow (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs); Frederick Hertzberg (Motivation Hygiene Theory)
p. 4 & 5
Name a few 'fathers' of the Behavioral Science Approach.
Douglas McGregor (Theory X & Theory Y); Rensis Likert (developed a leadership model to the extreme of Theories X & Y.)
p. 5
Name the 'Father' of Contemporary Management Approaches.
W. Edwards Deming (Deming's Absolutes of Quality)
p. 6
Name the 5 management theories.
Classical; Human Relations; Behavioral Science Approach; Management Science Theory; Contemporary Management Approach.
p. 5 & 6
What is a written or graphic representation of the formal authority relationships?
An Organization Chart
p. 11
The term ____ is defined simply as the right to command, the right to exercise the legimate powers vested in the person by the organization.
Authority
p. 11
The assignment of the authority to perform work, to manage the work of others, or to make decisions on behalf of the organization is called what?
Delegation
p. 10
File Transfer Protocol is on the internet for what function?
To download data
p. 311
What are 3 types of communication?
Formal communication, informal communication, & management by walking around (MBWA)
p. 322
What are 3 methods of interpersonal communications?
Written communication, Verbal (oral) communication, & Nonverbal communication
p. 323
What is it called when people try to classify others into predictable grouping so that they can be more easily understood?
Stereotyping
p. 327
What is a special code of behavior required in specific work situations?
Business etiquette
p. 331
_____ is defined as a shared system of symbols, beliefs, attitudes, values, expectations, & norms for behavior.
Culture
p. 334
True or False? In high-context cultures, such as Korea or Taiwan, people rely more on the nonverbal actions & environmental setting to convey meaning. Gestures & tone of voice are a critical part of the message.
True
p. 335
True or false? In low-context cultures, such as U.S. or Germany, people rely more on verbal communication. Rules & expectations are spelled out through statements.
True
p. 335
What is Ethnocentrism?
Judging other groups according to your own standards, behaviors, & customs, & deciding "our" way is superior.
p. 361
What is the most important thing for any speaker to be?
As prepared as possible.
p. 329
What are the 5 SMART system goals for establishing clear goals?
Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Realistic, Timetable
p. 297
A _____ is a document that is used to authorize payment of a liability.
Voucher
p. 196
_____ are earnings resulting from the receipt of cash or other assets (or the reduction of a liability) in exchange for goods sold by an entity or services performed by an entity.
Revenues
p. 159
_____ are obligations or debts of an equity that are owed to other parties.
Liabilities
p. 157
An accounting period that consists of 12 consecutive months is called a _____ _____.
Fiscal year
p. 155
Owners of capital stock are called _____ or _____ of the company & are the owners of the corporation.
Stockholders & shareholders
p. 152
_____ are senior-level persons who help new people (proteges) get accustomed to their jobs & provide guidance, direction, & support during the process.
Mentors
p. 116
A _____ _____ determines the training requirements of the organization.
Needs assessment
p. 109
_____ _____ _____ means following the rules or steps of logical thinking in resolving a dilemma or making a choice.
Rational decision making
p. 27
What type of decision is made routinely on a recurring basis & most often does not require huge expenditures?
Programmed decisions
p. 25
What type of decision has no precedents & represent situations that have not been dealt with previously or, if so, only on a limited basis within the organization?
Nonprogrammed decisions
p. 26
What type of decision making means following the rules or steps of logical thinking in resolving a dilemma or making a choice?
Rational decision making
p. 27