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95 Cards in this Set

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T/F
Spinals reflex can occur even if the spinal cord is completely severed
T
Describe informed concent for an anesthetic procedure
non-binding legal document signed by client explaining that they have been informed of the hazards of the procedure & anesthetic use on the patient
W/in the ASA Classifiaction of Patient Status
Risk asso w/ Class V
Class V- grave
What ASA class would an obese , 1 year old cat addmitted for a declaw
Class II
15 year old dog is categorized as Class IV patient status, What pre-anesthetic diagnostic tests should be preformed
TPR
CRT
TP
BUN
CREAT
EKG,
UA - Complete profile
CBC
Blood glucose,
Possible X-ray or ultrasound
T/F
Vagus nerve makes upto 80% of the sympathetic nervous system
False -nerve makes upto 80% of the parasympathetic nervous system
Chemical messenger released by synaptic endbulbs of telodendra which passes nerve impulses to adjacent stucture is called
neurotransmitter
2 reasons to use preanesthetic drugs
1. reduces patient anxiety
2. reduces amt of anesthetic needed
3. reduces wind up
which family of drugs has minimal adverse efects on cardio-vascular & resp systems
antichlineric
Which drug family decreases anxiety, but can cause ypotension
phenothiazine
Which drug family provides excellent analgesia
1. opioids
2. thiazine derivatives
Which drug family blocks stimulation of teh vagus nerve
anticholinergics (esp atrophine)
Which drug family provides heavy sedation and analgesia
Opioids
Which drug causes bradycardia, 2nd degree heart block & hypotension
xylazine
Which drug is contraindicated if pre-existing bradycardia
atropine
Which drug has long lasting analgesic effect
Buprenes, buprenirphine
Which drug reduces the seizure threshold(can cause seizure activity)
acepromozine
Which drug is an anti-convulsive effect
diazepam
Which drug has anti-arrhythmic effect
acepromazine
Which drug is a potent respiratory depressant
oxymorphone
Which drug tranquilizer that is contraindicated in shocky, hypotensive or anemic patients
acepromazine
Which drug is an opioid antagonist
naloxone
Which anticholinergic does NOT cross the placenta
glycopyrollate
The vagus nerve makes up 80% 0f ----nervouse system
parasympathetic
Best sedative in rabbits is
acepromazine
What 2 alpha-2 agonists are used in rabbits & why
xylazine & medetomidine

reversible & good analgesic& sedative
State 2 adverse effectsof halothane
1. increases heart sensitivity to epinephrine
2. hypothermia
Which is better for a patient w/ renal dz- halothane or Methoxyflurane

& why
Halothane
What does MACmean
minimum alveolar concentration
Sx planeof anesthesia = MAC x ?
1.5
whichgas anesthetic has the greatest repritatory depression
methoxyflurane
T/F
nitrous oxide is frequently used as a sole agent in vet med
False
What is 1 contraindication to use NO2
1. Do not use with torsion
2. Never in a closed system
What is difFusion hypoxia

& how to avoid
when larger nitorus oxide molecules fills all alveolar space making it difficult for oxygen to diffuse thru alveoli.
Avoid -let O2 flow for 2-5 min after truning off NO2 so that the body can be sufficiently oxygenated to prevent diffusion hypoxia
T/F
Atropineis used as a preanesthetic to help control or prevent seizure activity
F - diazepam is often given for this
Name 1 preanesthetic & 1 injectable anesthetic agent that sensitizes the heart to arrhythmogenis effects of epinephrine (ie. could cause an arrhythmia
Barbiturates
Opioids
thiazine derivatives like xylazine
Why is ketamins most frequently used in combo with a trank
b/c ket causes seizures by selective CNS stimulation & disrupts nerve conduction in the cerebrum

Combo wi diazepam to reduce
Why should ultra- short acting barbiturate hiopental not be used in sighthounds
recovery as drug is redistributed from the blood to the muscle & fat & excreted by the liver, & sighthounds lack sufficient fat to do this without complications
2 contraindications for barbituraate family of inductionagesntm other than breed
Respiratory depression
2. Hypothermic
3. Acidotic
4. too thin
5. shock
What happens to reflexes when using cyclohexamine familyof injectable anesthetics
They become exagerated
Ketamine does not depress cardiac rate or function

T/F
heart support drug - true
Shock patient requires anesthesia. what would you use & why
Ket-val


Reason:
metabolism & elimination of ket occurs primarily in the kidney of which species


in the liver
Kat - Kidney

Dog - liver
Propofol provides a good analgesic T/F
false
A patient under anesthesia should bechecked every ___ minutes
five
If reservoirbagis semi-closed rebreathing circuit is full, name 2things ou could do to prevent it from filling fast
1. reduce the O2 flow]
2. open up pop-off valve a little more
Name 1 reason geriatric patient & 1 reasonwhy pediatric patient is at INCREASED risk durig anesthetic proceduer
1. Geriatric - decreased organ functions

2. Ped- immature organ developement
When anesthetizing a brachycephalic patient,describe the pre-induction & induction techniques
Pre- oxygenate
2. Use injectable anesthetic agents
Name 2 anesthetic agents, families or techniques that would be safe for use during a C- section
1. isoflurane
2.use lowest effective dose
3. IV fluids
4. NOT Ket/Val or pentobarb
T/F
When an animal has a resp disease the safest way to induce anesthesia is mask induction
False
Name 2 pre-anesthetic or anesthetic drugs that should be avoided or used w/ caution in animal w/ hepatic dz
1. Ketmine
2.propofol
3. iso
What is a good anesthesia for a 15 yr cat w/ chrnic renal failure
isoflurane
What are 2 causes of animal not staying anessthetized

What would you see in patient
1.vaporizer too low
2.inadequate O2 FOR DELIVERY

movement
2 signs inpatient if the vaporizer was turned too high & patient too deep


How to treat
CRT >2seconds

2. turn down or off the vaporizer
& bag the patient
@ causes of pale mm
1.pre-existing anemia
2. excessive bloodlose duringsx
2 causes of dyspnea & cyanosis during anesthesia


how to treat
1. inadequate flow of O2,
2. blockage of endo tube


oxygenate
Tachypnea is fairly commonly seen during anesthesia. Name 1 cuase & which breed
1. viseral stimulation

2. toy breeds or fat
2 drugs that could cause tachycardia

2 non-drug causes
1.atrophine
2.ketamine
3. epinephrine`

1. shock
2. hyperthyroid
3.congestive heartfailure
2causes of bradycarda, 1 drug & one not drug
1. xylazine
2. medetomidine
3.opioids w/o atrophine


1,stimulation of vagus nerve
2. too deep
3.hyperkalemia
4. hypothermia
5.hypoxia
2 causes of cardiac arrhythmia & 2 drugs to tx
1. Pre-existing cardiac problems
2. too deepananestheticdepth
3. different drugs

TX:
1.lidocaine
2.ventilate w/ 100% o2
If cardia arret were to occur, ther prefferred route for drug admin wouldbe
IV
What is safest way to anesthetize animal who requires immediate anesthesia, but has notbeen fasted?
1.rapid induction, intubation
2.avoid head down psotion
3. Drugs -metocopramide
One drug that could cause seizure


1 drug to treat seizures
1. ketamine
2.patient disorder:

Tx. Diazepam
How to dx & tTx laryngospasmdurig recovery of cat


How to prevent?
1. scary sound on inspriation
reintubate patinet

IV inducation agent
lidocaine in throat befe
What is one advantage



& one disadvantageof local aanesthetic
1. cheap
2.possibleODinsmall amts
During epidural what is the first sensation to be lost
pain
Why addepi to lidocaine
Potentiates lidocaine by vascular constriction making lidocaine slower to take effect& allowing it to last a little longer
T/F
Patinetsw/ severehepatic dz may be more susceptible to adverse reactions of lidocaine
True
longest lasting drug:
Buprivacine
Meprivicaine
Lidocaine
Buprivicane
Lidocaine SQ do not exceed ____ mg.kg in dogs
10mg/kg
What is a ring block
An infiltration blockwhere localis injected ina line t anesthetize a region

Declaw is example
2 adverseeffects of local anethesia
1. temp or permenant nerve damage
2. CNS toxicity
IV local anesthestic tech in distal limb, how to protect animalfromtoxicity at end of procedure
Gredually release the tourniquet
What is the diff btwn epidural & spinal(or intrathecal) anesthetic anatomically
Layers:
Needle passew in ventrql direction thru
1.skin
2.SQ fat
3.spraspinour ligament
4. intraspinousligament
5. ligameentum flavusto epi space

If passepi spacegoes thru
6.dra mater
2. arachnoid membrane - CFS in subarachnoid space
pia mater to spine
Spinal cord ends at ___ in dog
& __ incat
Dog - L-6
Cat S1-S3
If see a drop of fluid in the hub when doing an epidural, what to do
Looking at CFS fluid so deliver 1/2 dose
T/F
Neruomuscular blocking agents used alone are a good choice of anesthesic procedure on aa debilitated patient
False, have no analgesic or trank effect
Which class of neuromuscular agents does NOT cause initial surge of muscleactivity
non-depolarizing
Last skeletal muscles to be affected by neuromuscular blocking agents
1. intercostal muscles
How would you assess anesthetic depthduring use of neuromuscular blocking agents
monitor heart rate
What is min standard time & temp for autoclave sterilization once optimum pressurehas been reached
121C (250F) for 13 minutes minimum but 15 min@ 15 psi to be sure
Flash sterilization s also known as irradiation sterilization
False
Double wrapped muslin packs in a closed cabinet are considered sterile for ___
7 weeks
Most reliable indicator for sterilization s the melting glass pellet, whch indicates both min time & temp has been reached

T/F
F
What is most common type of gas used for chemicals sterilization
ehtylene oxide gas
What is most common agentsused for cold sterilization
1. gluteraldehyde
2.chlorohexidine
Diff btwn sterilization & disinfection
sterilization destroys all living organisms, spores

disinfection only kills all vegetative matter but no spores on objects
Pack is considered unsterile if
1. drop onfloor
2. Date on tape is illegible
3. wet after sterilization
4. tape is broken or loose
5. outer wrap is ripped or punctured
6. pack dropped to floor
Sx instrument is dropped on flor, you can place it in cold sterilization solution for 5-20 min & will be STERILE

T/F
FALSE
Most common method of sterilizationis _____
Steam
i benefit of woven (muslin or linen ) wraps
1. memory
2. economical b/c reuse
Thread count of muslin wraps
140 thread per suare inch double thickness
Benefit of paper wraps
1.disposable,
2.economical
3.good barrier to moisture & microbes
What is method of sterilizatio used to sterilize fluids
filtration measured in micorms
Ionizing radiation is commonly used to sterilize gloves, tubing & suture material

T/F
true