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43 Cards in this Set

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Work
when a force is exerted on an object that causes the object to move some distance`
What are the conditions on work?
1) Objects must move some distance
2) Objects must move in the direction of the force
What does work depend on?
Work depends on the force applied and the distance the force causes the object to move
What is the formula for work?
w=fd
Power
the rate at which work is done; the rate at which energy is transformed or transferred
what is the formula for power?
p=w/t (p=fd/t)
What Unit is work measured in?
Joules (N*m)
What unit is power measured in?
Watts (J/s)
Energy
the ability to do work
what unit is energy measured in?
Joules (N*m)
What are two main types of energy?)
Kinetic and Potential
What are the Forms of Kinetic Energy?
Mechanical, Thermal, Acoustic, Radiant, Electrical
What is the formula for KE?
KE=1/2 * mass * velocity squared
Mechanical (KE)
energy an object has b/c of its motion
Thermal (heat)
Movement of Particles
-Hotter substances have higher KE than cooler substances (particles move faster in hotter substances)
-Temperature
Radiant
energy in the form of ELECTROMAGNETIC waves
-Radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma
Electrical (KE)
Movement of charged particles (electrons)
Acoustic
Sound energy produced by vibrating matter
Mass and KE are _________ ________
Directly Proportional
KE is ______ to the square of the velocity
proportional
Forms of Potential Energy
Mechanical, Chemical, Nuclear
Mechanical (PE)
energy because of an objects position
-Gravitational or Elastic
-Stretched rubber band, bow, compressed spring, any object lifted off the ground wind up toys
Chemical
energy stored in chemical bonds of a molecule
-Fossil fuels, wood, food, battery and your body
Nuclear
energy contained in the nucleus of an atom released by fission or fusion
Formula for GPE
GPE=m*g*h
Gravitational Potential Energy=
work done against gravity in lifting it
What does GPE Depend on?
height and weight
Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can not be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form to another or transferred from one object to another, but the total amount of energy NEVER changes
Formula for the Law of Conservation of Energy
Total Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy ( TE = PE + KE)
Energy can be lost to ___________ or ___ _________ as heat energy, mechanical energy and acoustic energy.
Friction, Air resistance
To change the KE of an object ____ must be done
Work
The change in KE is equal to the ____ done
Work
Work =
Change in KE
Work =
Change in GPE
3 ways machines "Make work Easier"
1) Multiply force (Increase input force)
2) Multiply Distance (increase input distance)
3) Change the direction of the force
Machines _________ reduce the amount of work done, they actually _____ the amount of work being done (friction)
Do Not, increase
What are the six simple machines?
wedge, pulley, lever, screw, incline plane, and wheel and axle
If a machine ___________ your force it will ___________ your distance by an equal ratio.
Increases, decrease
What is the formula for the Machine Trade-off?
work (in)= work (out)
If a machine ________ the distance or speed it will __________ your force by an equal ratio.
Increases, decrease
Efficiency
compares the output work to the input work
Formula for efficiency
E=Output Work/Input Work * 100
Efficiency is ALWAYS <100% b/c work is always lost to ________ within a real system
Friction