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### 43 Cards in this Set

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 Work when a force is exerted on an object that causes the object to move some distance` What are the conditions on work? 1) Objects must move some distance 2) Objects must move in the direction of the force What does work depend on? Work depends on the force applied and the distance the force causes the object to move What is the formula for work? w=fd Power the rate at which work is done; the rate at which energy is transformed or transferred what is the formula for power? p=w/t (p=fd/t) What Unit is work measured in? Joules (N*m) What unit is power measured in? Watts (J/s) Energy the ability to do work what unit is energy measured in? Joules (N*m) What are two main types of energy?) Kinetic and Potential What are the Forms of Kinetic Energy? Mechanical, Thermal, Acoustic, Radiant, Electrical What is the formula for KE? KE=1/2 * mass * velocity squared Mechanical (KE) energy an object has b/c of its motion Thermal (heat) Movement of Particles -Hotter substances have higher KE than cooler substances (particles move faster in hotter substances) -Temperature Radiant energy in the form of ELECTROMAGNETIC waves -Radio, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, X-ray, gamma Electrical (KE) Movement of charged particles (electrons) Acoustic Sound energy produced by vibrating matter Mass and KE are _________ ________ Directly Proportional KE is ______ to the square of the velocity proportional Forms of Potential Energy Mechanical, Chemical, Nuclear Mechanical (PE) energy because of an objects position -Gravitational or Elastic -Stretched rubber band, bow, compressed spring, any object lifted off the ground wind up toys Chemical energy stored in chemical bonds of a molecule -Fossil fuels, wood, food, battery and your body Nuclear energy contained in the nucleus of an atom released by fission or fusion Formula for GPE GPE=m*g*h Gravitational Potential Energy= work done against gravity in lifting it What does GPE Depend on? height and weight Law of Conservation of Energy Energy can not be created or destroyed; it may be transformed from one form to another or transferred from one object to another, but the total amount of energy NEVER changes Formula for the Law of Conservation of Energy Total Energy = Potential Energy + Kinetic Energy ( TE = PE + KE) Energy can be lost to ___________ or ___ _________ as heat energy, mechanical energy and acoustic energy. Friction, Air resistance To change the KE of an object ____ must be done Work The change in KE is equal to the ____ done Work Work = Change in KE Work = Change in GPE 3 ways machines "Make work Easier" 1) Multiply force (Increase input force) 2) Multiply Distance (increase input distance) 3) Change the direction of the force Machines _________ reduce the amount of work done, they actually _____ the amount of work being done (friction) Do Not, increase What are the six simple machines? wedge, pulley, lever, screw, incline plane, and wheel and axle If a machine ___________ your force it will ___________ your distance by an equal ratio. Increases, decrease What is the formula for the Machine Trade-off? work (in)= work (out) If a machine ________ the distance or speed it will __________ your force by an equal ratio. Increases, decrease Efficiency compares the output work to the input work Formula for efficiency E=Output Work/Input Work * 100 Efficiency is ALWAYS <100% b/c work is always lost to ________ within a real system Friction