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26 Cards in this Set

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Siting Considerations

When selecting potential locations for a command post, a number of considerations must be made to ensure that effective command and control can be maintained. The locations selected should:
- permit good radio communications with all of the subordinate elements and the higher headquarters without the need for a radio-rebroadcast (RRB) station
- be screened from enemy EW devices.

This can be achieved in part by using terrain features to limit emission ranges towards the front lines and by using low-power settings

- provide visual concealment, making best used of wooded or built-up areas. Locations offering only isolated or predictable cover should be avoided
- provide physical protection, particularly from indirect fire
- allow for easy security of the site, either by selecting terrain defendable by the integral command post personnel, or by establishing the site in close proximity to another element of the unit
- be accessible to wheeled vehicles, preferably with a covered final approach
CP on the mov
reconnaissance and advance parties are in location prior to the arrival of the command
post. These groups will establish all-round protection until other forces arrive.
- communications with higher and subordinate headquarters is maintained to provide early
warning of enemy contact in the immediate vicinity.
- once the command post is established, local security measures are upgraded by
emplacing concertina wire, early warning devices, etc.
- generators and vehicle engines are turned off during alarms or periods inactivity.
- noise and light discipline is enforced, including switching all lights to red at night.
- command post staff control all classified documents, and are prepared to destroy them if
in danger of capture.
There are four types of movement utilized to conduct road moves. They are:
Tactical Moves
Administrative Moves
Supply Moves
Independent Traffic
Tactical moves simply means that the forces move tactically, employing noise and light discipline, concealment, dispersion, and other means to reduce their chances of being detected, while increasing their own force protection.
This type of movement dictates that troops, vehicles, and command elements must be organized to permit deployment for combat.
Administrative Moves - movement conducted by day and night in which troops and vehicles are arranged to
expedite their movement and conserve time and energy during a time when enemy interference is not anticipated
Supply Moves - the regular movement of logistical columns in the communication zone, where the area is considered free of enemy interference.
This type of movement achieves the greatest capacity from the roads available.
Independent Traffic –
this is the movement of individual military vehicles
TAC Move considerations
- the essence of the tactical move is based on protection.
- the density of vehicles on the road will be somewhat diminished in order to survive ground and air attack.
- the tactical move forward may take the form of an advance in column to expedite the move. This provides the best control of the forces.
- if the enemy threat is such that a more cautious movement is judged necessary, the move may be conducted from waiting areas to waiting areas, to procure the best protection. Waiting areas usually will be placed to conceal your force, and should be located along the routes or axis of advance for rapid access by a force if attacked. The moves from waiting areas to waiting areas will be controlled by the combat team HQ with tactical bounds to protect its forces.
- a combat team will deploy recce patrols forward and covering open flanks to locate possible enemy.
will be followed by an advance guard that will expedite its movement in order to counter enemy threats rapidly and protect the main body.
The main body may travel on multiple routes that allow dispersing vehicles concentration. These forward elements are under the control of the OC. A rear guard will be deployed to protect the rear of your forces. The recce will deploy over the entire front of the combat team and locate possible enemy positions and obstacles. If obstacles are located, they will attempt to locate a deviation route.
Average Speed and Density. At night, or at other times if the enemy threat justifies it, columns may move at a set average speed and density, the result
being a long stream of vehicles relatively evenly spaced on the road. This method provides improved control.
Capacity. If the situation warrants it, routes can be used to capacity.
In this case, when the capacity of a particular route has been determined in vehicles per hour, then that number of vehicles can be fed into the route each hour. This method makes the best use of the available road space.
Packet. This will be the standard method of movement. In this method, vehicles move in small groups called “ packets” of four to six vehicles. The number of vehicles per packet depending upon the type of vehicles, operational requirements, and the sub-unit organization.
An officer or NCO is in charge of each packet, and is responsible for maintaining the proper interval between packets.
The Packet method is most commonly employed. Additional points to consider for this method of movement are:
- the interval between packets will vary; an interval of approximately five minutes between packets should be observed with a maximum distance of 100 metres (110 yards) between vehicles within packets.
the advantages of PACKET method are that:
- a small number of vehicles traveling together can often keep up a faster average speed than a large column regularly spaced,
- a less worthwhile target is presented from the air,
- concealment from the air is easier to obtain during halts, and
- there is better immediate control.
disadvantages of PACKET method are that:
- overall control of the move is more difficult,
- greater reliance must be placed on junior commanders for route finding and pace setting, and
- there is great loss of capacity.

Columns should be halted at pre-reconnoitered harbour areas, but if for some reason this is not possible, they should be halted at places that provide a clear view of at least 200 metres/yards to the front and rear of the column.
If road conditions restrict visibility, steps must be taken to forewarn approaching traffic. Guides, warning flags, caution lights or flares (security permitting) should be posted in the front and rear of the column and at any other point, where there is a hazard to passing traffic.
Move from the Release Point. The procedure for the move of a unit from the Rel P to its new area is the reverse of that outlined for the move to the SP, except that accurate timings are not usually as critical.
The following guidelines will apply:

guides will meet their sub-units at the unit Rel P;
care should be taken to avoid vehicles closing up, when finally moving off the road into their allotted areas. This is a matter of march discipline and an efficient harbour area;
the harbour party must make arrangements for track discipline before vehicles enter the harbour area; and
when a harbour area is occupied at night, camouflage must be completed before daylight and carefully inspected as soon as it is light.
Detours. At any stage in a move, the route may become blocked.
A detour drill, along the lines of that suggested in Art 511, must be developed by every unit. A high standard of map reading is demanded of convoy, packet and vehicle commanders, if the move is to be continued with the minimum of delay.
Control Considerations

When planning a road move, the headquarters, and most notably the command post staff, will be responsible to provide the following control information:
the composition and order of march of columns;
route or routes, including details of how they are marked;
critical points, including the start point (SP) and the release point (Rel P);
traffic density and method of movement;
average speed to be maintained;
the locations of and actions at planned halts;
traffic control protocols;
communications instructions;
the recovery plan; and
locations of assigned waiting areas.
Unit vehicles will normally be recovered using integral resources and Close Support repair and recovery assets are likely to be the subject of special orders. On long moves, it will normally be necessary to position recovery elements from Close Support units to deal with any casualties beyond the capacity of the units. Harbour areas are convenient locations for these elements. Each situation requires individual treatment, and a coordinated plan will be prepared by the Staff, in conjunction with the formation CSS units.
Recovery posts
will usually be sited with traffic posts for ease of communication. If for some reason, traffic posts are not located at defiles, additional recovery posts should be sited close at hand, so that obstructions can be cleared as quickly as possible. Some repair personnel may be located at the recovery posts.
waiting areas are selected with regard to the following considerations:
- they must be close to the routes or axis
- they must have good cover and concealment from air and ground observation
- they must have good entrances and exits - they must have a good interior circuit
- they should be large enough so that vehicles can be parked at least 30 meters apart
- they should be defensible
Waiting areas are needed not only for normal halts, but also for traffic control and for avoiding congestion in emergencies. Other purposes of waiting areas are:
- to provide concealment from ground and air observation
- to permit serials of a column to be interchanged in order to change the priority of the
- to provide areas for the assembly of troops before an operation
- to provide rest, maintenance or decontamination areas for units on the move
waiting areas are selected with regard to the following considerations:
- they must be close to the routes or axis
- they must have good cover and concealment from air and ground observation
- they must have good entrances and exits - they must have a good interior circuit
- they should be large enough so that vehicles can be parked at least 30 meters apart
- they should be defensible
Force elements must take the following actions upon arriving in a waiting area:
- sentries must be deployed for local defence
- arcs of fire must be allocated and be interlocked
- ensure that vehicles are in their dedicated places, and that engines and radios are off
except those necessary for radio watch
- HQ, A1 echelon and soft skin vehicles should be placed in the middle of the waiting
area, specially if the risk of a ground attack is high.
- a high level of camouflage and concealment is sought, and light and noise discipline are
paramount - movement out of the waiting area is controlled, whether under attack or not
- elements must report when they are entirely out of a waiting area
The headquarters controlling the move must make the necessary arrangements for traffic control between the start points (SP) and the release points (Rel P) of the move plan of the higher formation. The responsibility for traffic control up to the SP and beyond the Rel P is normally delegated to
the subordinate sub-units or force elements that are moving.