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61 Cards in this Set

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What does the optic disc look like?
The disc should be round, have sharp borders, and be pink to yellow-orange with a center physiologic cup. The cup-to-disc ratio should be 1:2 or 1:3 or noted as .5 to 1.5 mm, respectively.
What do the retinal vessels look like? What happens when hypertension occurs?
-four main branches (supply four quadrants of the eye)
-Arteries are 2/3 to 4/5 the size of the veins and have a light reflex.
-arteries look brighter red and thinner.
-artery to vein ratio is normally 2:3. -When hypertension occurs, one might see A-V nicking
Describe the macula? Where is it in relation to the optic disc
This is an avascular area containing the cones for vision and color. The macula is lateral compared to the optic disc.
How would you assess and interpret visual acuity using a Rosenbaum and a Snellen Eye Chart.
-Stand 20 feet from the patient
-Pt covers untested eye
-The measurement 20/20 in one eye means that at 20 feet, the patient sees what is expected to be seen at 20 feet by a person with normal vision.
Describe how to correctly perform and interpret findings of confrontation visual field testing and
extraocular muscle movement testing on a patient.
-Confrontation: Examiner is about three feet in front of and at eye level with the patient, pt cover eye and dr. covers mirror image, bring wiggly fingers in
-Extraocular muscles: Use a (+) and an “X” to get the six conjugate eye movements and to check for vertical nystagmus (up and down). The examiner should hold his/her hand about 15-18 inches from the patient’s nose and must move his finger about 10-12 inches in each direction
Discuss assessment for normal eye alignment
-Corneal light reflex test.
-have the light source held in front of pt. at 1.5 feet and shining at the patient’s nose.
-Pt looks straight ahead and the position of the reflected light is noted on each cornea
Discuss assessment for abnormal normal eye alignment
-If the reflected light is not seen in congruent positions on each cornea
Identify the six
diagnostic positions of gaze and the extra ocular muscles associated with each.
•Medial rectus – adduction (eye moves nasally)
•Lateral rectus – abduction (eye moves temporally [away from nose])
•Superior rectus – elevation (eye moves up), intorsion (the 12 o’clock position on the cornea rotates nasally), adduction
•Inferior rectus – depression (eye moves down), extorsion (the 12 o’clock position on the cornea rotates temporally), adduction
•Superior oblique – intorsion, depression, abduction
•Inferior oblique – extorsion, elevation, abduction
describe normal external eye anatomy.
?
define the normal “blind spot.”
physiological isolated area of diminished vision within the visual field located 15-20 degrees temporal to central fixation. It corresponds to the optic nerve head.
explain the use of the small aperture, large aperture, and red-free filter on the
ophthalmoscope.
-Use the small aperture for the undilated pupil and the large aperture for the dilated pupil.
-The red-free filter is used to exclude rays of red light and helps the doctor visualize blood vessels and hemorrhages (they appear black with this light).
Describe common funduscopic changes seen in hypertension
Findings found throughout retina
-Primary findings: A-V nicking (the vein looks nicked because the artery is invisible but widened), Arteriolar narrowing, Copper wiring, flame hemorrhages
-Secondary: Hard and soft exudates, Retinal venous, occlusions, Macular stars
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to
conjunctivitis
-Pupil is normal
-no pain
-watery or purulent discharge
-Pink eye = bacterial conjunctivitis
There is also viral conjunctivitis
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to
uveitis
-inflammation of the iris and the anterior chamber
-Pupil is constricted
-Severe photophob. pain
-no discharge
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to narrow angle glaucoma (discussed in lecture).
-Pupil is mid dilated
-Severe pain
-no discharge
-prevents adequate drainage and causes the pressure to build up
-Cornea appears steamy
-Seen in people with a shallow anterior chamber. The space between the iris and cornea is decreased.
Discuss the usefulness of performing a cover test on a child.
It is often done on young children with question of a “lazy eye” (strabismus) to assist in early diagnosis and treatment. The child is asked to gaze at a distant object with both eyes, and then the questionable “weak” eye is covered. Without the stimulus of vision, the covered “weak” eye will either “sneak” inward (esophoria) or outward (exophoria). When uncovered, it will be seen “moving” back to coordinate with the gaze of the other eye.
define the various types of anopsias and their related anatomical lesions.
Anopsia = defect of sight; blindness
* Binasal hemianopsia
* Bitemporal hemianopsia
* Homonymous hemianopsia
* Quadrantanopia
explain the use of the small aperture, large aperture, and red-free filter on the
ophthalmoscope.
-Use the small aperture for the undilated pupil and the large aperture for the dilated pupil.
-The red-free filter is used to exclude rays of red light and helps the doctor visualize blood vessels and hemorrhages (they appear black with this light).
define the abbreviations OD, OS and OU.
OS means Oculus Sinister which is your left eye. OD means Oculus Dexter which is your right eye and OU means Oculus Uterque which is both eyes.
Describe common funduscopic changes seen in hypertension and diabetes.
When hypertension occurs, one might see A-V nicking (the vein looks nicked because the artery is invisible but widened).
photophobia,
Painful oversensitivity to light
Photosensitivity
increased sensitivity of the skin to light and other sources of UV.
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to
conjunctivitis
-Pupil is normal
-no pain
-watery or purulent discharge
-Pink eye = bacterial conjunctivitis
There is also viral conjunctivitis
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to
uveitis
-inflammation of the iris and the anterior chamber
-Pupil is constricted
-Severe photophob. pain
-no discharge
describe distinguishing physical exam features and eye symptoms related to narrow angle glaucoma (discussed in lecture).
-Pupil is mid dilated
-Severe pain
-no discharge
-prevents adequate drainage and causes the pressure to build up
-Seen in people with a shallow anterior chamber. The space between the iris and cornea is decreased.
Discuss the usefulness of performing a cover test on a child.
It is often done on young children with question of a “lazy eye” (strabismus) to assist in early diagnosis and treatment. The child is asked to gaze at a distant object with both eyes, and then the questionable “weak” eye is covered. Without the stimulus of vision, the covered “weak” eye will either “sneak” inward (esophoria) or outward (exophoria). When uncovered, it will be seen “moving” back to coordinate with the gaze of the other eye.
define the various types of anopsias and their related anatomical lesions.
idk
* Binasal hemianopsia
* Bitemporal hemianopsia
* Homonymous hemianopsia
* Quadrantanopia
define the abbreviations OD, OS and OU.
OS means Oculus Sinister which is your left eye. OD means Oculus Dexter which is your right eye and OU means Oculus Uterque which is both eyes.
photophobia,
Painful oversensitivity to light
Photosensitivity
increased sensitivity of the skin to light and other sources of UV.
diplopia
double vision
strabismus
lazy eye
scotoma
is an area of partial alteration in one's field of vision consisting in a partially diminished or entirely degenerated visual acuity which is surrounded by a field of normal - or relatively well-preserved - vision.
amblyopia
Partial or complete loss of vision in one eye caused by conditions that affect the normal development of vision.
Ectropion
Ectropion is the turning out of the eyelid (usually the lower eyelid) so that the inner surface is exposed.
Entropion
Entropion involves the turning in of the edges of the eyelid (usually the lower eyelid) so that the lashes rub against the eye surface.
Hypertropia
Hypertropia is a condition of misalignment of the eyes (strabismus), whereby the visual axis of one eye is higher than the fellow fixating eye.
Describe common funduscopic changes seen in diabetes
Findings are found in the posterior pole
-Primary: Microaneurysms, neovasculariation, Retinitis proliferans
Secondary: Hard exudates, Deep hemorrhages, Retinal venous occlusions, Vitreous hemorrhages
Marcus Gunn pupil
-Paradoxial dilation of the pupil when testing papillary light reflex
-associated with an afferent limb defect
State the relevant symptoms related to eye problems and disease:
a. Sties
b. Inflammation
c. Discharge
d. Pain
Explain visual acuity using Rosenbaum and a snellen eye shart.
- Snellen = 20 Feet from pt
- Rosenbaum = 14 inches
“Jaeger” is used for near vision (J-1 scale
-Distance vision (20/20)
Describe normal external eye anatomy
Facial assym, Unilateral Exopthalmus, Lid lag up gaze/down gaze, Abnormal CN5, Blunt trauma, Lid lesion, Lymphoma, Lid bags, Foreign body under lid, Ptosis, Entropion, Exctopion
Esophorias
Weak eye sneaks inward on cover test (nasal deviation)
Exophorias
Weak eye sneaks OUTward on cover test (temporal deviation)
Hyperphorias
Upward Deviation
Xanthelasma
Collection of cholesterol around eye lids
Chalazion
is a cyst in the eyelid that is caused by inflammation of a blocked meibomian gland, usually on the upper eyelid
Hordeolum
External stye, an infection of the sebaceous glands of Zeis at the base of the eyelashes
Icterus
Yellowing of eyes due to jaundice
Chemosis
is the swelling (or edema) of the conjunctiva. It is usually caused by allergies or viral infections, as well as eye rubbing.
Arcus senilis
white or gray opaque ring in the corneal margin (peripheral corneal opacity) present at birth or appearing later in life and becoming quite frequent near death… It results from cholesterol deposits in or hyalinosis of the corneal stroma and may be associated with ocular defects or with familial hyperlipidemia.
Cataract
clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light
Kayser Fleischer ring
are dark rings that appear to encircle the iris of the eye. They are due to copper deposition as a result of particular liver diseases…ASSOCIATED WITH WILSONS DXS.
Anisocoria
a condition characterized by an unequal size of the pupils.
Mydriasis
Dilated pupil
Miosis
Constricted pupil
What is Layer 5 (Session Layer) responsible for?
defines how to start, control and end conversations. includes control and management of multiple bidirectional messages so that the application can be notified if only some of a series of messages are completed. This allows the presentation layer to have a seamless view of an incoming stream of data
Argyll Robertson pupil
i. are bilateral small pupils that constrict when the patient focuses on a near object (they “accommodate”), but do not constrict when exposed to bright light (they do not “react” to light). They were formerly known as "Prostitute's Pupils" because of their association with tertiary syphilis and because of the convenient mnemonic that, like a prostitute, they “accommodate but do not react.”
Myopia
-nearsightedness
- eyeball is too long so light is focused in front of the retina
presbyopia
-hyperopia and impairment of vision due to old age
-diminution of power of accommodation from loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens, causing the near point of distinction vision to be removed further from the eye
Astigmatism
-light not uniformly focused in all directions. Commonly due to a cornea that is not perfectly spherical