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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Abington School District v Schempp
ruled against the recitation of prayers including the Lord's Prayer and readings from the Bible as violations of the establishment clause'; found to be state sponsored despite children not being required to participate

Alexander v Holmes County
debated term in Brown decisoin: "with all deliberate speed"
Baker v Carr
ruled that the 1901 Tennessee statute was unconditional and stated that the defendant had been denied equal protection; established the "one man, one vote" rule for the issue of apportionment of representative

Barron v Baltimore
declared that private property shall not be taken for public use without just compensation

Bethel v Fraser
upheld the suspension of a high school student for using sexual innuendos during a nomination speech to a voluntary assembly; ruled that the school had a right to limit vulgar language at certain times (1st Amendment protections did not apply)

Benton v Maryland
overturned state conviction by stating that a trial in a state court on the same charge as a federal offense did constitute (states & fed); reversed Palko decision

Bowers v Hardwick
ruled that the privacy rights of married and unmarried people to have consensual sex in private do not exist if the people are of the same sex

Brown v Board of Education
Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal

DeJonge v Oregon
overturned a conviction based on Oregon's criminal syndicalist law by ruling that a speech presented in an orderly meeting did not constitute a "clear and present danger"

Dred Scott v Sanford
Africans residing in America, whether slaves or free, could not become United States citizens and the plaintiff therefore lacked the capacity to file a lawsuit. Furthermore, the parts of the Missouri Compromise creating free territories were unconstitutional because Congress had no authority to abolish slavery in federal territories. Judgment of Circuit Court for the District of Missouri reversed and dismissed for lack of jurisdiction

Engel v Vitale
ruled that the state sponsored prayer program of a New York school violated establishment clause, even though the mandated prayer was voluntary and nondenominational

Escobedo v Illinois
established right to legal counsel

Furman v Georgia
ruled against death penalty

Gibbons v Ogden
the power to regulate interstate navigation was reserved to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution (steamboat operation)

Gideon v Wainwright
established that the right to counsel was an integral component of a fair trial; new trial granted due to the fact that he was so poor he could not hire a lawyer and thus had to defend himself

Gitlow v New York
declared that the 14th Amendment makes 1st Amendment freedoms of speech and the press apply to state actions as well as federal

Goss v Lopez
student suspended from an Ohio school without due process was ruled unconstitutional
Gregg v Georgia
upheld constitutionality of death penalty by defending law that guided judges and juries in decision to issue the death sentence; mandatory use prohibited

Griswold v Connecticut
overruled Connecticut banning the distribution and use of contraceptives

Hazelwood School District v Kuhlmeier
student's comments in a school newspaper are considered free speech, can be censored
Heart of Atlanta Motel v US
denied the right of the owner of a large motel in Atlanta, Georgia, to restrict his clientele to white persons; ruled that the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a valid exercise of congressional power under the commerce clause as a place of public accomodation serving interstate travelers
Klopfer v North Carolina
upheld the right to a speech trial

Korematsu v US
upheld exclusion of all persons of Japanese ancestry from a prescribed West Coast area

Lemon v Kurtzman
three-pronged test needed to be applied to see if law violates separation of church and state: law must have a secular purpose, law must not promote or retard religious beliefs, and law must avoid "excessive entanglements" with religion

Malloy v Hogan
incorporated the 5th Amendment protection against self-incrimination and began the discussion of involuntary confessions

Mapp v Ohio
overturned a conviction for possession of pornographic material in violation of state law because police forced their way into the house with an alleged search warrant to gather incriminating evidence

Marbury v Madison
Congress cannot pass laws that are contrary to the Constitution, and it is the role of the Federal courts to interpret what the Constitution permits

Miller v California
ruled that in and of itself obscene material is not protected by the 1st Amendment; must hold literary, artistic, political, or scientific value
Miranda v Arizona
ruled that a person held in custody must be read rights and warnings prior to interrogation including their right to counsel and their right not to answer questions

Cruzan v Missouri
case of Nancy Cruzan who was living in a comatose state when her parents sued to have her feeding tubes removed

McCulloch v Maryland
Although the Constitution does not specifically give Congress the power to establish a bank, it does delegate the ability to tax and spend, and a bank is a proper and suitable instrument to assist the operations of the government in the collection and disbursement of the revenue. Because federal laws have supremacy over state laws, Maryland had no power to interfere with the bank's operation by taxing it

Near v Minnesota
overturned a Minnesota law that prohibited continued publication of a newspaper that the state court had deemed malicious, scandalous, and defamatory; ruled that it violated the protections of the 1st Amendment (allowed tabloids)

Palko v Connecticut
restated that state had a right to try a person for a crime in addition to the federal govt

Planned Parenthood v Casey
upheld a 24-house waiting period, an informed consent requirement, a parental consent provision for minors and a record-keeping requirement, but struct down the spousal notice requirement of a Pennsylvania statute dealing with abortion

Parker v Gladden
stated that there needed to be guarantees that the jury charged with a case was impartial

Plessy v Ferguson
The "separate but equal" provision of public accommodations by state governments is constitutional under the Equal Protection Clause (Plessy purchased 1st-class ticket on railway)

Powell v Alabama
ruled that proper counsel had been denied to the indigent Blacks who had been accused of rape (scottsboro Boys) based on 14th Amendment

Reynold v Sims
fair and equal voting in Alabama
Robinson v California
determined that imprisoning drug addicts does violate the 8th Amendment phrase concerning "cruel and unusual punishment"
Rochin v California
the pumping of Rochin's stomach for drugs constituted an illegal search and seizure
Roe v Wade
Texas laws making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated a woman's Fourteenth Amendment right to choose whether to continue a pregnancy

Roth v US
ruled that in order to be deemed obscene, a work had to be "utterly without redeeming social value"

Shaw v Reno
gerrymandering a House district drawn on racial lines is unconstitutional
Schenck v US
ruled unanimously that the WWI Espionage Act did not violate the 1st Amendment's protection of free speech and free press; established the "clear and present danger" test (ie. fire in a crowded theater)

US v Seeger
Seeger attempts to avoid military draft based on his religious beliefs
Shelley v Kramer
neighbors create a restrictive covenant barring black families from buying in their neighborhood
Sheppard v Maxwell
reversed the murder conviction of Dr. Sam Sheppard on the grounds that massive publicity had deprived him of the right to a fair trial, (basis for the movie called The Fugitive)

Terry v Ohio
police need only reasonable suspicion in regards to search and seizure
Texas v Johnson
invalidated a Texas law that prohibited descration of the flag on the ground that it was an unconstitutional restriction of expressive conduct

Tinker v Des Moines
oveturned the suspension of students who had worn black armbands to protest the Vietnam War declaring that students do not lose their rights when they enter a school

US v Nixon
The Supreme Court has the final voice in determining constitutional questions; no person, not even the President of the United States, is completely above law; and the president cannot use executive privilege as an excuse to withhold evidence that is 'demonstrably relevant in a criminal trial

US v O'Brien
upheld conviction of O'Brien for burning his draft card as a political protest

United Steelworkers of America v Weber
ruled that Title VII's prohibition against racial discrimination does not condemn all private, voluntary, race-conscious affirmative action plans

University of California Regents v Bakke
ruled that special admissions program was illegal because it took race into account; race no longer a factor in UC's future admissions decision (Bakke admitted to medical school)

Webster v Reproductive Health Services
granted woman the right to contraceptives as well as an abortion
Weeks v US
ruled unanimously that in a federal prosecution the 4th Amendment barred the use of evidence secured through an illegal search and seizure; the Court unequivocally declared that the Constitution did no protect against unreasonable searches by state officers

Wesbury v Sanders
US House districts gerrymandered with an equal population, a figure which rises as US increases in size; ensures Baker v Carr
West Virginia State Board of Education v Barnette
ruled that sudents' rights were violated when they were forced to salute the American flag

Worcester v Georgia
ruled that land belonged to the Cherokees ad that laws of Georgia can have no legal standing nor do the citizens of Georgia have the right to enter Cherokee lands without the consent of the Cherokees

Dennis v US
upheld the Smith Act of 1946 that made it a crime to advocate the violent overthrow of the government