• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/109

Click to flip

109 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When the dictionary definitions and the philosophical descriptions of the term "profession" are combined, what are the criteria for an occupation to be described as a profession.
One that exhibits a body of theory and specialized knowledge, is service-oriented, and has a distinct subculture.
What is wrong with the position that any given broadly defined occupation is either a profession or it is not?
That approach leads to such conclusions as only doctors and not nurses are members of the medical profession and only officers and not enlisted are professionals in the POA. The vast majority of occupations and professions are distributed all along the great middle between the two extremes. The characteristics which determine an occupation's place on the Professions Continuum is not prestige or salary, but rather the three criteria. A century or two ago only a few recognized professions extisted (physician, professor, clergy, etc.)and now there's no need for the vacuum tube changer in today's computer systems (an important job only half a generation ago.)
List unprofessional actions that should not be exhibited by NCOs.
Coasting through a career; considering oneself only a technical expert; discrimination; ignoring direction from your superiors and then asking for forgiveness later; inflating EPRs; lack of self development; neglecting weak skill areas such as writing; only focusing upon one area of your job respondsibilities; poor attitude; purposely rushing to miss reveille and retreat; seeing discipline violations and not correcting; sexual harrassment; shabby wear of the uniform; shying away from additional responsibility; taking advantage of no supervision; understanding role model respondsibilities; using personal bias in the evaluation process; weak performance feedback or no performance feedback; whining or complaining about everything.
What motivates NCOs to choose to behave in a professional manner?
Seriousness about the commitment and obligation sworn to in the oath of enlistment; association with those with very high standards; a sense of urgency; have worked under leadership of several good professional supervisors; have patriotic undertones driving personality; view military service as serving a cause higher than self; see themselves as serving a cause higher than self; view the POA/military as a profession; view themselves as more than a technician; view themselves as professional.
What is the impact of unprofessional behaviors upon the Air Force?
Degraded mission effectiveness; decrease in organizational effeciency; lack of subordinate growth and development; no mentorship; perpetuates a "just a job" attitude; discipline and morale suffer.
Why is it important that we continue to move along the professional continuum?
If we don't aspire to improve or enhance our level of performance and abide by the same core values and responsibilities, then there is no way the profession as a whole can advance along the continuum of occupations. In other words, a weak link here and a weak link there will cause the entire organization to lose status. A continual move toward professionalism helps increase public trust of the military.
Give examples of how today's enlisted corp is significantly different than our predecessors in the areas of higher level respondsibilities and education.
Many enlisted members are assuming respondsibilities once exclusively reserved for members of the officer corps. These increased respondsibilities, both technical and supervisory, are being executed more capably because the enlisted individuals involved have a firm basis of professional understanding based upon increased levels of education.
How does the Profession of Arms subject area broaden our perspective of the military profession?
Builds an appreciation of our membership in the POA. Provides information about events and issues that dictate military missions. It also teaches and reminds us about our history and culture. It provides the foundation for NCO membership.
What are the primary sources for our continued study and improvement?
CMSAF Professional Reading List; AFM 10-100, Airman's Manual; PFE; various applicable AFI, AFP, AFM, AFDD; AF website and the various news and publication links it contains; Enlisted Heritage Research Institute web page; Air University Library web page; AFPC Personnel Issues web page.
What three core objectives steer our national strategy process?
The three core objectives are enhancing our own security, promoting democracy abroad, and bolstering America's economic prosperity.
What is the primary focus of National Security Strategy?
National Security Strategy primarily focuses on the myriad of military threats that the nation must confront.
When was Airlict first used as a mechanism for National Strategy?
According to Major Richard J. Hazdra, USAF, in the book, Air Mobility--The Key to the United States National Security Strategy, Airlift was first used as a tool of National Security through the Berlin Airlift
Which command soley provides Air Mobility for the United States?
Air Mobility Command (AMC)
How is National Security beneficial to National Strategy?
National Security Strategy is an extension of National Security. National Security is utilizing Air Mobility resources effectively adhering to the National Security Strategy. This encourages prevention and limitations of terrorist activity.
Indentify three categories relative to determining a nation's needs and interests?
In the book, Making Strategy--An Introduction to National Security Processes and Problems, Donald Nuechterlein provides a useful way of distinguishing between various interests. The three categories are how crucial is an interest to the United States, how vital is an interest to the United States, and which basic interest is at stake?
Who is respondsible for determining the nation's needs and interests?
Strategists must weigh heavily the nations needs and interests. The process entails determining what interests and what national instruments of power are available and applicable.
Indentify the four levels of intensity.
The four levels of intensity are survival, vital, major, peripheral.
How does National Power support National Security?
Strategy makers must match the instruments of power to the interests of the state. They must consider the interests and the instruments in existence to pursue those interests, which are matters of public policy choices. The choices are made in the political realm. Strategist must determine to what ends will the allocation of scarce or abundant resources be dispersed.
Indentify and explain the respondsibilities for each instrument of power.
A military instrument is the extent to which a nation's armed forces can be employed to acheive national ends. The potentitial use of the military instrument, even when its application is not threatened, always lurks in the background to condition international relationships. The ultimate application, of course, is direct involvement in combating support of vital interests. The success of the military instrument is determined by the following: economic and technological base of a nation; a nation's economic status is dependent upon diplomatic skill in negotiating favorable trade agreements; and a nation's diplomatic success depends on the nation's ability to back up its activities through economic and military rewards or sanctions.

The Economic Instruments have similar constraints to the diplomatic/political instrument. The degree to which the US government can manipulate economic assistance is limited by the comparatively small and static size of its assistance budget. Foreign aid has been described as a budgetary element with no real domestic constituency and, as a result, it has not grown with inflation (meaning its real value has declined).

The use of Diplomatic Instruments is the ability to mediate successfully and to produce unique and mutually acceptable solutions to complex issues without application of military or economic power is the essence of the diplomatic instrument.

The use of Diplomatic Instruments of Power employs methods that a nation uses to bring its international position and diplomatic skills to bear in pursuit of national instruments.
Explain the relationship between each instrument of power.
Each instrument of power is a combination of multiple factors, and any one factor can be crucial in a given situation. The diplomatic, political and economic instruments include the military instrument. It is difficult, for example, to identify any simple index of military power that allows prediction of a clash between two reasonably equal, or even not so equal, foes because so many factors comprise military prowess. In addition to such obvious factors as the amount of manpower and firepower available to any contestant, numerous supply lines, and others are more difficult to measure precisely, such as morale, leadership, strategic and tactical soundness, compatibility between physical capabilities and political objectives, and mere luck. To a great extent, military history is a chronicle of calculation and miscalculation in comparing military instruments and their capacities to serve national ends.
When do strategists determine which instrument of power to utilize?
When they have indentified the various levels of intensity of basic threats.
Explain how National Strategy processes support National Security.
There are four distinct areas of importance in relation to how the national strategy processes support National Security. Those areas are identified as objective and initiatives, developing military strategy, designing operational strategy, and formulating battlefield strategy.
What is the first step towards implementing a National Security Strategy? Why?
Defining the objective and initiatives. Doing so ensures strategists are formulating an effective National Security Strategy; it is the reasoning for devising a strategy process.
What is the difference between military strategy and operational strategy?
Military Strategy sets in motion the actions required to develop a military force structure (i.e., planning; procuring weapon systems material; and recruiting, training, and sustaining personnel) and then deploys that force structure. Military Strategy is also broad in its scope. Operational Strategy is much narrower and more specific. Operational Strategy employs the forces provided by military strategy.
Differentiate between tactics and higher levels of strategy relative to battlefield strategy.
The classic differentiation between tactics and higher levels of strategy remains relevant in the sense that tactics govern the use of forces on the battlefield while grand strategy, military strategy, and operational strategy bring forces th the battlefield. One can also add some clarity to the situation by stating that tactics are concerned with doing the job "right" and higher levels of strategy are concerned with doing the "right" job.
How are national decisions defined?
National decisions are decisions about the content grand strategy and the resources available to implement that strategy. These decisions are products of political processes within the Federal Government.
What elements comprise the coordination of military strategy?
Employment, development, and deployment.
Explain the coordination process.
Coordination is geared primarily to relationships between instruments of power at the grand strategy level and refers to relationships within the military instrument of power. The strategists attempt to coordinate the elements of military strategy. The strategists must consider elements such as how should the risks be managed; should they prepare for the worst case or most likely case; and can one prepare for both possibilities, or would that raise the specter of not being prepared adequately for either case.
How does Major Regional Conflict (MRC) affect National Security?
They pose a heavy demand on US forces and definitely drive most force requirements.
Identify the four phases of the department planning framework for MRC.
Halting the Invasion, force buildup, Counteroffensive and ensuring postwar stability.
When does regional conflict exist?
Regional conflict exists anytime the use of military power by force is contemplated or activated.
Define terrorism.
Terrorism is '...the systematic use of terror or unpredictable violence against governments, publics, or individuals to attain a political objective. Terrorism has been used by political organizations with both rightist and leftist objectives, by nationalistic and ethnic groups, revolutionaries, and by the armies and secret police of governments themselves.
Identify tow terrorist groups.
Any two of the following: Bander-Meinhof gang of West Germany, the Japanese Red Army, Italy's Red Brigades, the Puerto Rican FALN, al-Fatah and other Palestinian organizations, the Shining Path of Peru, and France's Direct Action were among the most prominent terrorist groups of the later 20th century. After the American Civil War (1861-1865) defiant Southerners formed a terrorist organization called the Ku Klux Klan to intimidate the supporters of Reconstruction.
How do terrorist groups finance their violent activities.
Drug trafficking is at the top of their list of illegal money raising activities, followed by robbery, extortion, kidnapping, blackmailing, and arms smuggling.
What is the respondsibility of the HIDTA Program?
The HIDTA is responsible for reducing the production, manufacturing, distribution, transportation and chronic use of illegal drugs, as well as the attendant money laundering of drug proceeds.
Which drug does the intelligence community believe has been the primary narcotics threat since 1985?
Cocaine
Which drug is the most widely abused and readily available, illicit drug in the United States?
Marijuana
How does international organized crime negatively impact our nation?
Drugs, terrorism, and organized crime are far better financed and more disciplined thatn previously suspected. Drug Cartels have the ability to move literally hundreds of billions of dollars and in and out of legitimate financial systems. Organized crime groups, particularly in Russia, now have almost a choke hold on the country's vast natural resources, as well as their banks and media. Russia has been described recently by the press as a kleptocracy from top to bottom, a semicriminal state. And there are now various terrorist groups, including those being sponsored by Iran and Iraq, which are actively recruiting top nuclear scientists in their efforts to obtain nuclear weapons. Unfortunately, these areas of concern can cause our economy to weaken financially and reduce National Security while placing the United States in an extremely vulnerable position.
What three risks are associated with nuclear proliferation?
Potential losses to US forces, damage to allied nations, and escalation to a superpower confrontation.
What are two major problems posed by biological and chemical weapons?
Biological and chemical weapons are easy to produce and conceal.
What does Information Warfare (IW) consist of?
Information Warfare (IW) consists of actions taken to acheive information superiority in support national military strategy by affecting adversary information and information systems while leveraging and protecting our own information and information systems. This formulation is intended to encompass military and non-military actions as well as offensive and defensive aspects. It also encompasses all levels of war from the tactical to strategic, and applies to peacetime and wartime conditions.
Describe the emphases of Offensive Information Warfare?
Offensive Information (IW) emphasizes the manipulation of electronic information systems to influence an adversary's perceptions and behavior. This might, for example, involve disabling military and civilian telecommunication systems through computer viruses or electromagnetic pulse devices. Infiltration is, however, the "maneuver of choice" since an enemy, unaware that his information sources have been compromised, will continue to trust them, creating opportunities for deception, Offensive IW also emphasizes the use of direct broadcast satellites, the commercial media, and "visual stimulus and illusion" technologies such as holography to conduct propaganda and subversion.
What does Defensive Information Warfare entail?
Defensive Information Warfare (IW) requires an ability to detect and thwart attempts to tamper with one's own sources of information. In the military sphere, this entails assuring the integrity of command and control, communications, and intelligence systems. Critical elements of the civilian infastructure such as power grids, financial networks, and telecommunications systems must also be protected.
What is the American information infastructure vulnerable to?
The American information infastructure, which the US defense communication depends, is highly vulnerable to infiltration and sabotage.
Identify the nine critical issue areas of an infastructure?
Fragmentation of responsibility, technology, architechtural framework, people, facilities, data bases, network control, threat and risk, and security in a global infastructure.
What are the three keys to protecting the nations information infastructure?
The key to protecting the nation's information infastructure is to provide the ability to protect the system from attack; detect an event when it is occuring and be able to decide if it is an attack, a failure mode, or an isolated hacker; react to the event in a way that minimizes the impact and restores and maintains capability. Protect! Detect! React!
How does MOOTW support National Security?
MOOTW focuses on deterring war, resolving conflict, promoting peace, and supporting civil authorities in response to domestic crisis.
What does Combat Operations of MOOTW include?
Typically, MOOTW involves combat operations entailing protection of shipping, enforcement of exclusion zones, counter air interdiction and attack. MOOTW involving combat, such as peace enforcement, may have many of the same characteristics of war, including active combat operations and employment of most combat abilities.
What is the goal of MOOTW during Noncombat?
As in war, the goal is to achieve national objectives as quickly as possible and conclude military operations on terms favorable to the United States and its allies. However, the purposes of conducting MOOTW may be multiple, with the relative importance or heirarchy of such purposes changing or unclear.
When is overlapping of operations of MOOTW prevalent?
Overlapping operations of MOOTW is demonstrated when combat MOOTW and noncomabt MOOTW is conducted simultaneously.
How do space operations support National Security?
By eliminating the use of hostile forces ability to disrupt navigation signals.
What respondsibilities lie within space systems structure?
Space forces provide military leaders, operators and planners with enormous force enhancement products and services that are essential in acheiving rapid dominance of the battle space. Today's space systems provide key information via global communications, navigation, weather, warning, and ISR to acheive full spectrum dominance across the range of military operations. In addition, space forces afford a commanding view of operations and provide an important military advantage.
What is the EAF concept?
EAF is intended to improve our ability to rapidly deploy light, lean and lethal elements of air and space forces anywhere on the globe, while providing predictibility and stability for all airmen, To meet this challenge, the Air Force assigned people and equipment from active duty, Air National Guard and Air Force Reserve units into 10 Air and Space expeditionary forces, two crisis-response air and space expeditionary wings and five lead mobility wings.
What is the goal of EAF?
To provide an integrated total force that is organized, trained and equipped to provide rapid responseive tailored air and space forces in support of the global engagement mission. It is designed to cope with the high tempo of operations experienced since the Gulf War.
Explain the deployment process of AEF
Under the AEF concept almost all of the Air Force-active, Reserve and Guard-will be divided into 10 force packages, each with a cross section of the Air Force weapons systems drawn from geographically seperated units. Each AEF will have about 175 aircraft, and each will be more formidable than the air forces of most nations. These AEF packages will be able to respond within 72 hours of any unexpected cointingency and will be trained and tailored to meet commanders' needs in wide range of contingency operations. Each AEF will be on call to handle contingency operations for about 90 days every 15 months--two will be on call at all times; about half of each AEF to wait on call at home bases during the 90 day window and about half to deploy.
How does EAF/AEF support National Security?
The Expeditionary Air and Space Force organizational and its Air and Space Expeditionary Force tool support National Security by increasing morale and retention among airman, decreasing the negative effect that high operations tempo has on airman, and presenting an organized, trained and fully equipped force to deal with threats to National Security.
What is the purpose of joint warfare and the desired outcome?
The purpose of joint operations is to combine forces and resources under organized leadership to maintain National Security. Joint warfare does not require that all forces participate in a particular operation merely because of their availability. Joint warfare operations were designed to ensure that military objectives are acheived in the most effective and efficient manner possible.
What is considered the bedrock of US military doctrine?
The principles of war are identified as the bedrock of US military doctrine.
What do the principles of war provide?
The principles of war provide the basis for the fundamentals of joint warfare and for the services to develop their respectie doctrine, tactics, techniques and procedures.
What was the name of the Berlin Airlift Operation and its significance to air transportation?
Operation Vittles underlined the importance and feasibility of sustained, round-the-clock mass movement of cargo by air. It brought experience in operational techniques, air traffic control, and maintenance and reconditioning of aircraft, and provide the need for larger cargo aircraft.
What air power lessons learned in WWII were further developed in the Korean War?
The air tactics and techniques initiated during that war were developed further in Korea, including the Air Force's first use of jet aircraft, the F-80 Shooting Star; to control air strikes efficiently, the system of tactical air control was developed.
What was the most significant use of air power during the Vietnam War? Why?
Linebacker II, avery accurate and highly concentrated attack on sanctioned areas. The offensive played a key part in bringing about the North Vietnamese decision to sign the peace agreement on 15 January 1973
What was the final analysis of air power from Desert Storm?
Is swiftness, decisiveness and scope brought about the coalition's victory from the wise and appropriate applications of air power. Air power found, fixed, fought, and finished the Iraqi military.
Corporal Eddie Ward
The aeronautical division of the US Army Signal Corps first enlisted man and one of aviation's earliest pioneers.
Corporal Frank S. Scott
First enlisted airman to lose his life in an air accident.
Corporal Eugene Bullard
The first black pilot and fighter pilot.
Staff Sergeant Esther M. Blake
The first woman to enlist in the first minute of the first hour of the first day that regular Air Force duty was authorized.
Chief Master Sergeant Grace E. Peterson
The first woman to be promoted to the highest noncommissioned officer grade.
What are the duties of the Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force?
CMSAF - to advise and assist the Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the Air Force in matters concerning enlisted members of the Air Force. Appropriate matters include morale, welfare, training, pay and allowances, discipline, promotion policies and more. Traditionally, the CMSAF has performed a number of other duties.

1. Representing the enlisted force at ceremonies and other social functions.

2. Accompanying the Chief of Staff on base visits and conducting additional visits on his own.

3. Serving as advisor to the Soldiers' and Airman's Home and the CMSAF selection board.

4. Representing the enlisted force on a variety fo boards, including Air Force Welfare, Uniform, Commissary, Army and Air Force Exchange service, Air Force Aid Society, and Outstanding Airman of the Year boards.

5. Serving as a point of contact for other services and civililan organizaitons on issues that affect the enlisted force. Furthermore, legislatures and policy makers at all levels of government often solicit the CMSAF's point of view.
First Sergeant
The First Sergeant's duties fall within 5 general areas:

1. Promoting health, morale and welfare.

2. Maintaining discipline and standards.

3. Preparing and presenting squadron training and information programs.

4. Supervising care and upkeep of squadron dormitories.

5. Monitoring and administration.
What does adhering to the standards of dress and appearance promote?
Unity within an organization, pride in oneself and in the organization.
If we maintain proper wear of the uniform at all times, including in public, how will this influence the public's opinion of the military?
The public will see the military as a well-disciplined organization capable of carrying out its mission, down to the last detail, no matter how trivial.
What is considered to be the most important benefit of drill for the military member?
Teamwork development.
How do ceremonies restore moral and build the espirit de corps?
It takes the cooperative effort by all members to reach a common goal requiring a great deal of discipline and practice.
What are three ways to honor the flag?
Salute it, place it in the position of honor, and never dip it to any person or object.
What are two elements of military etiquette?
Kindness and respect.
What is the impact of gossip on the work center?
Gossip can create a barrier to effective communication that inhibits productive work and accomplishment of the mission.
What is the purpose of the military salute?
Saluting is a significant symbol of the military profession recognized as a mark of a well-trained, disciplined military member. It serves a greeting and as an acknowledgement of being a member of the profession of arms.
Where is the first and second place of honor?
The first place of honor is always on the right and the second place of honor is that of being in front or "going first."
Define Wellness.
The aspects of wellness include exercise, nutrition, managing your weight and stres, not smoking, keeping current on immunizations and physical check ups.
What is the purpose of aerobic exercise?
Beneficial changes occur in the heart, lungs, vascular system, and other tissues of th body. Your body becomes more efficient in moving air into and out of the lungs as your hearts' pumping efficiency inreases with less effort. the blood and muscles are better in transporting and utilitzing oxygen.
What benefits do you gain from strength training?
Stronger muscles, greater endurance of movement, improved alignment and muscle balance, an increase in metabolic rate, and a better physique.
What is the purpose of the warm-up phase?
The warm up produces a physical state of readiness by gradually increasing the breathing, heart rate, and body temperature to prime muscles for the upcoming activity.
Explain the FIT concept?
It stands for Frequency (how many times a week), Itensity (effort of activity based on HR, weight or resistance, ROM), and Time (duration of activity).
How does dehydration affect your exercise workout?
If you allow yourself to become even slightly dehydrated, the consistency of your blood thickens which causes the heart to work harder to pump thicker blood out to the body.
What are the six major categories of nutrients?
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, Vitamins, Minerals and Water.
What is the most effecient method to acheive permanent weight loss?
Decrease your caloric intake and increase your calorie output.
What causes stressful events to become a problem?
Stressful events themselves are not harmful; it is the inability to cope with too much stress that creates problems.
Explain how stress can be positive?
It can serve as a motivator or initiator for activity.
What are the effects of smoking?
Some effects are lung diseases like bronchitis and emphysema, HTN, cancers of the mouth, throat, and bladder, stomach ulcers and birth defects.
What factors influence maintaining a healthy lifestyle?
Living and working environments, inherited characteristics, and the medical care you have received.
What are some of the respondsibilities a military citizen has in maintaining a state of well being?
A military citizen has the respondsibility to eat healthy, exercise regularly, get plenty of sleep, abstain from smoking, and have effective methods for managing stress.
How can you be a wellness role model?
Your commitment to a high degree of wellness will provide an example for subordinates to follow. As a supervisor you need to be out in the forefront, leading the way for those you supervise.
How does effective stress management help us as military citizens?
We're better able to deal with stressful situations by first recognizing them and then managing our time and controlling our emotions when the situations occur.
What are some "common" meanings of ethics?
Ethics is knowing the difference between "right" and "wrong"; ehtics is what is used to determine what action to pursue; ehtics are the standards by which we act; ethics are our values; ethics are our behaviors; ethics are our adopted attitudes and beliefs.
List examples of the written forms of our military code of ethics.
The Oath of Enlistment, the UCMJ, the Code of Conduct, DOD Regulation5500.7-R, Joint Ethics Regulation.
Based on AFI 36-2909's assertions concerning professional relationships, what are some inferences we can make concerning unprofessional relationships?
Unprofessional relationships are deadly to the organization, create distrust, destroy communication, foster disrespect, and distract from the mission.
How do Fraud, Waste, and Abuse differ from each other?
Fraud - the deliberate attempt to deceive or deprive the Air Force of something of value E.g: false travel voucher.

Waste - is the extravagant, careless, or needless expenditure of Air Force resources-e.g., not getting the best use of something, having more of an item on hand than you need.

Abuse - is the intentional, wrongful, or improper use of Air Force resources E.g: Using government vehicles for personal transportation.
Why is "integrity first" first?
Because integrity is essential. It's inner voice of self-control and the starting point in everything we do in the Air Force. Members of the Air Force must know the right things to do and have the fortitude to do them.
Why is "responsibility and accountability" an important tenet of integrity first?
No person of integrity tries to shift the blame to others (accountability). A person with integrity does not take credit for the work of others (accountability). NCOs who hold themselves accountable for their actions gain respect and are better able to influence those around them. NCOs with integrity are not irrespondsible. They do what is expected of them. NCOs with integrity acknowledge their duties and act accordingly.
Why is "faith in the system" and important tenet of service before self?
It is important to believe that the processes and people in place will do the right thing, that justice in the end will prevail, and that others will act respondsibly in their actions. When we lose faith in these systems, we start to adopt a view that our way of doing things is better; we start to undermine these systems for our own personal reasons; and our subordinates may be tempted to follow suit.
What are some examples of the Air Force "systems" we trust?
The Enlisted Evaluation System, the decoration system, the promotions system, the UCMJ, superviors supervising their people properly, the chain of command, and the IG system.
What are some examples of the important milestones in the history of the Code of Conduct?
1. Aftermath of the Korean Conflict.

2. On May 18, 1955, Secretary of Defense Charles E. Wilson appointed a committee to draft a Code of Conduct to be used by military personnel who were captured by communist forces. Justice Department was studying alleged misconduct cases levied against ex-POWs. The study was an attempte to determine whether or not those prisoners should be tried for treason. Some of the cases were eventually brought to trial and convictions handed down.

3. Executive Order 10631 signed by President Eisenhower in 1955.

4. Following the Vietnam Conflict, the DOD conducted a review of the Code of Conduct. After interviewing POWs, the DOD panel determined that training was needed to help prisoners overcome the guilt resulting from "breaking" and giving more than name, rank, service number and DOB.

5. In November 1977, President Carter amended Article V. It now reads, When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, Iam required to give my name, rank, service number, and DOB." Before the change, Article V read "...I am BOUND to give ONLY name, rank..."

6. In March 1988, President Reagan issued Executive Order 12633, amending the Code with language that is gender-neutral.
Define the term "parole" in the context of prisoner of war? Why would the enemy employ parole?
Parole is a promise by a prisoner to a captor to fulfill certain conditions, such as agreeing not to escape nor fight again, once released, in exchange for such favors as relief from physical bondage, improved food and living conditions or repatriation ahead of the sick, injured or longer-held prisoners. The enemy employs parole to get on our good side to gain military information. They want to use positive propagands to undermine the POW organization, communication, and resistance efforts, which are their ulterior motives.
Define three general types of hostile peacetime detention.
Hostile Government Detention - involves a hostile government (one whose relations with the US is tense) legally detaining a US citizen/servicemen for violation(s) of its law.

Hostile Government-Sponsored Terrorist Detention - refers to the detention of US citizens by terrorists who are sponsored by the government of the country in which the US citizens are being held. Persons held under such circumstances are referred to as hostages, not detainees. Their capture and continued detention are violations of international law.

Independent Terrorist Group Detention - is the detention of US citizens by terrorists who are not sponsored by a hostile government. The independent terrorist group illegaly holds US citizens. These individuals normally are held for the purpose of propaganda or to coerce the US to take some action desired by the terrorists.
What are the key points of Article IV?
Even while in captivity we are to carry out our respondisibilities and exercise our authority. The senior person, regardless of the branch of service, must take command. Without discipline, camp organization, resitance, even personal survival may be impossible. Communication breaks down the barriers of isolation that an enemy may attempt to construct. The guielines for Article IV of the Code of Conduct pretty much pertain to peacetime internment also.
What is the purpose of Law of Armed conflict (LOAC)?
A broad base set of rules defining how war is fought. the rules are generalized rather than extremely specific, and are designed to apply to any armed conflict. Their purpose is to prevent unnecessary loss of lives or destruction of property on the battlefield.
What forbidden targets, tactics, and techniques are covered by the laws of war?
1. Civilians, medical personnel, chaplains, POWs and detainees, sick and wounded are considered noncombatants or people not participating in military operations and activities.

2. Individuals parachuting from a burning or disabled aircraft are considered helpless until they reach the ground. If they use their weapons or do not surrender upon landing, they must be considered combatants. Paratroopers jumping from an airplane to fight. They are targets, and you may fire at them while they are still in the air.

3. Don't fire at any medical personel, air or ground vehicles, buildings, tents or other facilities used for the care of the wounded, sick and disabled persons. Do not mark your position or yourself with a medical service emblem unless you have been designated to perform only medical duties.

4. You are not permitted to attack villages, towns or cities.

5. Enemy captives or detainees.

6. It is illegal to fire on enemy soldiers who have thrown down their weapons and offered to surrender.

7. Civillian and private property.

8. Make sure civilians are protected from acts of violence, threats and insults.

9. Using poison or poisoned weapons is against the law of war.

10. The law of war does not allow you to alter your weapons to cause unnecessary injury or suffering to the enemy.

11. You may not cut off the tip of a bullet or in any way alter its original shape; nor may you use soft-tipped or dum-dum bullets which expand on impact.

12. Other examples of restricted weapons are projectiles filled with glass or the use of any substance on a bullet, which would tend to inflame a wound.
Under the LOAC, what should your response be if you are given an order which would result in a crime being committed?
You are not required to carry out the order; you are required to do what you can to stop the act from occurring and to report it to your chain of command.