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30 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
csf exists in what space?
what is kernig's sign?
clinical sign of meningitis: pt can flex hip but not extend knee without pain
age groups most often affected by meningitis?
70% in children < 5yo
mcc bacterial meningitis
infants: grp b strep, e.coli, listeria; 1-2yo: S.pneumoniae; 2-40yo: n.meningitidis; 40+: S.pneumo
causes of viral meningitis (5)
mumps, echovirus, coxsackie virus, EBV, HSV type 2
symptoms of normopressure hydrocephalus
"wacky, wobbly, wet" -- (dementia, gait ataxia, urinary incontinence)
causes of normopressure hydrocephalus
when CSF cannot be absorbed by arachnoid villi -- eg from hemorrhage
what is pseudotumor cerebri?
raised ICP from impaired CSF absorption by arachnoid villi; causes headaches worsened by coughing and straining, sometimes by eye movements; numerous visual manifestations: papilledema, enlarged blind spots, loss of peripheral VF
epi a/w pseudotumor cerebri
young obese females
what is an uncal herniation?
transtentorial herniation
what is a tonsillar herniation?
transforaminal herniation; protrusion of brainstem and cerebellum through foramen magnum
what is kernohan's notch?
damage to contralateral crus cerebri usu from mass lesion causing contralateral hemiparesis (corticospinals run through crus cerebri); can cause false localizing sign
Clinical Signs of uncal herniation (4)
1) Ipsilateral dilated pupil/ptsosis (stretching of CN III);
2) Contralateral homonymous hemianopia (compression of ipsilateral PCA);
3) Ipsilateral paresis (compression of contralateral corticospinals in crus cerebri -- Kernohan's notch);
4) Duret hemorrhages (displacement o BS --> small bleeding)
distribution of anterior spinal artery
anterior 2/3 of spinal cord, brainstem
what are the branches of the middle cerebral artery, and what do they supply?
lateral striate arteries (penetrating branches -- putamen, globus pallidus, internal capsule); rest of MCA supplies sensory and motor cortices
what is the anterior choroidal artery and what does it supply?
branch of the internal carotid near circle of willis; supplies part of globus pallidus, LGN, and posterior limb of internal capsule, amygdala
branches of the vertebral artery?
anterior spinal artery (ASA) and posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA, supplies dorsolateral quadrant of medulla, including nucleus ambiguus)
what does the AICA supply?
caudal lateral pontine tegmentum (incl CN VII, spinal trigeminal tract of CN V, and inferior surface of cerebellum)
what is major blood supply to midbrain?
posterior cerebral artery (PCA)
what does PCA supply?
midbrain, thalamus, LGN, MGN
blood supply of internal capsule
MCA and anterior choroidal artery
what does the superior saggital sinus drain?
bridging veins, CSF (through arachnoid villi)
two most common vessels a/w aneurysm
1) Anterior communicating artery; 2) Posterior communicating arteries
common sequela of PCoA aneurysm?
third nerve palsy
which artery supplies the visual cortex?
calcarine artery (branch of PCA)
what is AFP a marker for?
elevated AFP: neural tube defects; reduced AFP: Down syndrome
findings in arnold-chiari malformation
stenosis of aqueduct; transforaminal herniation of medulla and cerebellar vermis
what is dandy-walker malformation?
failure to open of foramina of Luschka and Magendie --> enormous dilation of 4th ventricle;
fraction of brain tumors that are metastatic and primary
1/3 metastatic, 2/3 primary
2 most common posterior fossa tumors in kids
1) pilocytic astrocytoma; 2) medulloblastoma