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35 Cards in this Set

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respiration
process by which gasses are exchanged
ventilation
process of moving air into & out of lungs
inspiration
movement of air into lungs
expiration
movement of air out of lungs
pharynx
passageway for food from mouth > esophagus & for air from nost > larynx
trachea
passageway for air from pharynx > bronchi
bronchi
primary passageway of the bronchial tree that contains smooth muscle
alveoli
dilated sacs at end of bronchial tree where gas exchange occurs
perfusion
blood flow through a tissue or organ
bronchodilation
increase in diameter or airway due to relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle
bronchoconstriction
decrease in diameter of airway due to contraction of bronchial smooth muscle
bronchospasm
rapid constriction of airways
nebulizers
used to convert liquid drugs into fine mist to be inhaled
dry powder inhaler (DPI)
used to convert solid drug to fine powder to be inhaled
metered dose inhaler (MDI)
used to deliver a precise amount of drug to respiratory system
asthma
chronic inflammatory disease of airways

S/S: acute bronchospasm - dyspnea - coughing - gasping for air - mucous secretion - edema of airways
dyspnea
shortness of breath
status asthmaticus
acute form of asthma requiring immediate medical attention
antitussive
drug used to suppress cough
chronic bronchitis
chronic disease of lungs characterized by excess mucous production & inflammation
emphysema
terminal lung disease characterized by dilation of alveoli
expectorant
drug used to increase bronchial secretions
mucolytic
drug used to loosen thick mucous
salmeterol
AKA: Serevent
CLASS: bronchodilator
ACTION: selectively binding to beta2-adrenergic receptors in bronchiolar smooth muscle
A/E: headaches - nervousness - restlessness - tachycardia
bronchdilator
beclomethasone
AKA: Beclovent - Vanceril
CLASS: glucocorticoid
ACTION: reduces inflammation & decreases asthma attacks - NOT bronchodilator
A/E: voice hoarseness - can mask infections - Candidiasis (fungal infection)
glucocorticoid
The primary use of glucocorticoids such as beclomethasone (Beconase) in asthma is to terminate acute asthmatic attacks.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

Inhaled glucocorticoids are used for the long-term prevention of asthmatic attacks. p383
Activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in bronchoconstriction.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

During periods of rest, nerves from the parasympathetic nervous system are activated, causing the bronchiolar smooth muscle to contract and the lumen to narrow, resulting in bronchoconstriction. p379
Which of the following classes would LEAST likely be prescribed for asthma?
a. beta2-agonists
b. methylxanthines
c. glucocorticoids
d. beta-blockers
d. beta-blockers
Which of the following classes are theMOST effective drugs for relieving acute bronchospasm?
a. beta2-agonists
b. mast cell stabilizers
c. methylxanthines
d. anticholinergics
a. beta2-agonists
Salmeterol (Serevent) is NOT indicated for the termination of acute bronchospasm because it:
a. is not absorbed orally
b. takes too long to act
c. affects only beta1-receptors
d. causes too much CNS stimulation
b. takes too long to act
For the prophylaxis of non-persistent asthma, glucocorticoids are most commonly administered by which route?
a. oral
b. topical
c. intranasal
d. intradermal
c. intranasal
Long-term treatment with oral glucocorticoids may cause which serious adverse effect?
a. rebound congestion
b. hypertension
c. cancer
d. adrenal atrophy
d. adrenal atrophy
Candidiasis of the throat is a common complication during therapy with which class of medications?
a. inhaled glucocorticoids
b. mast cell stabilizers
c. beta2-agonists
d. mucolytics
a. inhaled glucocorticoids
The primary use of mast cell inhibitors in the treatment of asthma is to:
a. terminate acute asthmatic attacks
b. prevent asthmatic attacks
c. reduce secretions
d. reduce infections
b. prevent asthmatic attacks
Nedocromil (Tilade) and cromolyn act by:
a. causing bronchodilation
b. suppressing the cough reflex
c. blocking histamine release
d. drying bronchial secretions
c. blocking histamine release