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34 Cards in this Set

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anti-seizure drugs
medications to prevent/terminate seizures
convulsions
uncontrolled muscle contractions/spasms that occur in the face, torso, arms, or legs
delirium tremens
condition that develops during alcohol withdrawal that is characterized by tremors, disorientation, confusion, and an altered state of consciousness

sometimes called DTs

serious and sometimes fatal
eclampsia
seizures and/or coma develop in a client w/pre-eclampsia
epilepsy
disorder of the CNS characterized by seizures and/or convulsions
generalized seizures
travel throughout entire brain on both sides
partial seizeures
start on one side of brain and travel a short distance before stopping
pre-eclampsia
condition where hypertension develops due to pregnancy

hypertension is accompanied by proteinuria and/or edema
seizures
symptom of epilepsy characterized by abnormal neuronal discharges within the brain
status epilepticus
characterized by repeated seizures or one prolonged seizure attack that continues for at least 30 minutes
Clients with epilepsy may appear normal and asymptomatic.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
The goal of anti-seizure medication is to completely suppress neuronal activity in the brain.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

"The goal of anti-seizure medication is to suppress neuronal activity just enough to prevent abnormal or repetitive firing."
p100
Status epilepticus is a medical emergency brought on by repeated seizures and convulsions.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Abnormal mineral fluxes and blood glucose or protein levels may explain the occurence of most seizures during pregnancy or childbirth.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Drugs that stimulate the influx of chloride ion across neuronal cell membranes are associated with the neurotransmitter GABA.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Some anti-seizure medications may influence the rate of drug metabolism, decreasing the effectiveness of other drug therapies.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
Pehnytoin (Dilantin) and carbamazepine (Tegretol) are useful for the treatment of partial seizures.

TRUE or FALSE
TRUE
In severe cases of alcohol withdrawal, clients may experience seizures; however, anti-seizure medication is generally not give due to interactions with alcohol in the client's bloodstream.

TRUE or FALSE
FALSE

"Symptoms of alcohol withdrawal include mild to moderate tremors, lack of sleep, confusion, anxiety, and depression. The same medications used to control seizures also treats these symptoms."
p107
1_____ are uncontrolled neuronal discharges occurring within the brain while 2_____ are uncontrolled muscle contractions accompanying major brain discharges.
1) Seizures

2) convulsions
1_____ seizures occur only on one side of the brain and continue for a short distance before they stop; 2_____ seizures may travel throughout the entire brain.
1) Partial

2) generalized
In a resting state, neurons are surrounded by higher concentrations of the ions 1_____, 2_____, and 3_____. Inside the neuron, 4_____ ion concentration is higher.
1) sodium

2) calcium

3) chloride

4) potassium
Three pharmacological categories of anti-seizure medication are: drugs with 1_____ action, drugs that delay an influx of 2_____, and drugs that delay an influx of 3_____.
1) GABA

2) sodium

3) calcium
Four major chemical classes of anti-seizure medication are 1_____, 2_____, 3_____, and 4_____ _____.
1) benzodiazepines

2) barbiturates

3) succinimides

4) phenytoin-like agents
Compared to other popular anti-seizure medications, _____ _____ is a drug of choice for a broader range of seizure types.
valproic acid (Depakene)
Of the most popular anti-seizure medications, the drug of choice for absence seizures is ______.
ethoxsuximide (Zarontin)
Two popular benzodiazepines used to treat status epilepticus are 1_____ and 2_____.
1) diazepam (Valium)

2) lorazepam (Ativan)
Which of the following statements about seizures is correct?
a. All seizures involve jerking body movements.
b. Seizures are not detectable with the electroencephalogram.
c. Extreme metabolic shifts may cause seizures.
d. Seizures are not likely to occur in clients undergoing drug or alcohol withdrawal.
c. Extreme metabolic shifts may cause seizures.
Which drug is used to stop severe convulsions in progress?
a. secobarbital (Seconal)
b. phenytoin (Dilantin)
c. diazepam (Valium)
d. phenobarbital (Luminal)
c. diazepam (Valium)
Which of the following drugs is not used to treat convulsions?
a. buspirone (Buspar)
b. phenobarbital (Luminal)
c. gabapentin (Neurotin)
d. carbamazepine (Tegretol)
a. buspirone (Buspar)
To avoid causing absence seizures, valoproic acid (Depakene) should not be given in combination with:
a. clonazepam (Klonopin)
b. diazepam (Valium)
c. phenytoin (Dilantin)
d. carbamazepine (Teretol)
a. clonazepam (Klonopin)
Succinimides are drugs that cause a decrease in the influx of the ion:
a. sodium
b. chloride
c. potassium
d. calcium
d. calcium
Common concerns with phenobarbital (Luminal) include:
a. irregular heart beat
b. blood cell reactions
c. hypotension
d. Vitamin D and folate deficiency
d. Vitamin D and folate deficiency
The main advantage of using carbamazepine for treatment of partial seizures is its:
a. Category C status
b. dual use for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia
c. ability to cause less drowsiness
d. dual use for the treatment of manic-depressive disorder
c. ability to cause less drowsiness
One of the newest hydantoin-like drugs is:
a. phenytoin (Dilantin)
b. zonisamide (Zonegran)
c. carbamazepine (Tegretol)
d. valproic acid (Depakene)
b. zonisamide (Zonegran)